This lot are quite tricky to make sense out of. With gravities all over the shop. Different examples of Barclay Perkins X ranged from 1055º to 1064º. Not sure what that was about. Truman seem to have brewed their X Ale to two slightly different strengths, 1053º and 1059º. The two in the table were parti-gyled together. It's very confusing. Possibly they could be London and Country versions. The "L" in Whitbread's XL almost certainly stands for London.
What is clear, is the disappearance of most of the stronger London X Ales. There are only a couple of XX Ales in the table. The stronger ones - XXX and XXXX Ale - had completely disappeared. The strongest London Mild is Barclay Perkins XX Ale at 1078º. If you can remember back that far, you'll recall that in my table for the 1860's there was a Mild over 1090º. In the 1830's table there were many Milds over 1100º. Stronger Milds continued to disappear right up until WW I, by which time London brewers generally only brewed X Ale.
It's intriguing that outside London breweries continued to brew a range of different-strength Milds. At the same time, it's worth noting that the third Mild up from Tetley and William Younger were only about the same level as The X Ales of Barclay Perkins and Whitbread.
I can't see any pattern in the rate of attenuation. Both the London and provincial examples mostly fall in the range 65% to 75%.
As the sample contains beers with very different gravities, the fairest way to compare hopping rates is to look at pounds per quarter of malt. Ignoring the outliers in each set (Barclay's XX and Tetley's X3), the London beers have between 6.5 and 9 pounds, the provincial ones 4.25 to 9 pounds. The averages are 7.61 for London and 6.44 for the provinces. I think it's fair enough to say that London X Ales were a little more heavily hopped than their provincial cousins.
I love looking at boil times. If only to demonstrate what bollocks all that shit is about Scottish brewers boiling their first runnings down to syrup. Note that the two Scottish brewers, William Younger and Thomas Usher, did not have the longest boils. In fact only Fullers boiled for a shorter time than Usher and the longest boils by far were at Truman's Burton brewery.
This is good. There's a clear pattern in the fermentation temperatures. London brewers pitch slightly cooler and let their worts get warmer. To make it easy, I've put the averages into a table:
Note that the two Scottish brewers are close to the provincial average in their fermentation temperatures. Disproving that other load of Scottish bollocks, the one about them fermenting at near lager temperatures. Not even close to being true.
Most of the fermentations, both London and provincial, took 7 or 8 days. Not much else I can say about that.
Next time we'll be looking at the grists of these beers.
|London X Ales in the 1880's|
|Date||Year||Brewer||Beer||Style||OG||FG||ABV||App. Atten-uation||lbs hops/ qtr||hops lb/brl||boil time (hours)||boil time (hours)||boil time (hours)||boil time (hours)||Pitch temp||max. fermen-tation temp||length of fermen-tation (days)|
|4th May||1886||Barclay Perkins||X||Mild||1055.0||1010.0||5.96||81.87%||6.42||1.61||1.5||2||60º||72º||3 + 2|
|24th Jun||1886||Barclay Perkins||X||Mild||1064.0||1015.0||6.49||76.63%||8.00||1.97||2||2.5||60º||72º||3 + 3|
|3rd May||1887||Barclay Perkins||XX||Mild||1078.0||1024.9||7.02||68.04%||16.00||5.85||2||59º||70º||3 + 4|
|19th May||1886||Truman||X Ale||Mild||1052.6||8.0||1.88||2||2||2.25||2.25||60.5º||º||8|
|19th May||1886||Truman||X Ale||Mild||1058.7||8.0||2.09||2||2||2.25||2.25||60.5º||º||8|
|Whitbread brewing records held at the London Metropolitan Archives document numbers LMA/4453/D/01/051 and LMA/4453/D/01/052.|
|Barclay Perkins brewing record held at the London Metropolitan Archives document number ACC/2305/1/584.|
|Truman brewing record held at the London Metropolitan Archives document number B/THB/C/166.|
|Provincial X Ales in the 1880's|
|Date||Year||Brewer||Beer||Style||OG||FG||ABV||App. Atten-uation||lbs hops/ qtr||hops lb/brl||boil time (hours)||boil time (hours)||boil time (hours)||Pitch temp||max. fermen-tation temp||length of fermen-tation (days)|
|22nd May||1885||William Younger||X||Mild||1048||1009||5.16||81.25%||5.29||0.99||2||2.5||60º||67º||6|
|24th May||1885||William Younger||XX||Mild||1056||1012||5.82||78.57%||6.19||1.53||2||2.5||60º||69º||7|
|1st June||1885||William Younger||XXX||Mild||1065||1021||5.82||67.69%||6.67||1.86||2||2.5||58º||67.5||6|
|9th Jan||1885||Thomas Usher||X||Mild||1050||1013||4.89||74.00%||9.00||2.00||1.5||2||58º||69.5º||6|
|18th Jan||1887||Truman (Burton)||A||Mild||1052.1||1012.2||5.28||76.60%||7.19||1.40||3||3||3||60º||68º||8|
|18th Jan||1887||Truman (Burton)||8||Mild||1054.0||1013.9||5.31||74.36%||7.19||1.45||3||3||3||60º||69º||8|
|8th Feb||1887||Truman (Burton)||7||Mild||1061.2||1016.6||5.90||72.85%||5.90||1.46||3||3||3||59º||68º||8|
|19th Jan||1887||Truman (Burton)||6||Mild||1066.5||1019.9||6.16||70.00%||6.64||1.95||3||3||3||57º||69º||8|
|Tetley brewing record held at the West Yorkshire Archive Service, Leeds document number WYL756/44/ACC1903|
|William Younger brewing record held at the Scottish Brewing Archive document number WY/6/1/2/31|
|Thomas Usher brewing record held at the Scottish Brewing Archive document number TU/6/1/1.|
|Truman brewing record held at the London Metropolitan Archives document number B/THB/BUR/11.|
|Hodgson brewing record held at the London Metropolitan Archives document number ACC/2305/08/253.|