Wednesday, 28 July 2021

Let's Brew Wednesday - 1935 Heineken Pils

I was so happy when Peter Symons pointed me at Heineken’s pilot brewery records. Because they contain all the process details missing from the main brewery records. All the really good stuff: decoction, hop additions, fermentation profile and lagering times. Making this one of my most accurate recipes.

The grist is pretty simple, consisting of just pilsner malt and rice. Not a great deal you can say about that. I assume that the rice was at least partially included to keep the body and colour light. The rice was mashed in separately, but there wasn’t a cereal mash. As you’ll see in the mashing scheme below.

A single type of hops was used, Leitmeritz from the 1934 season. Leitmeritz is the German name for the Czech town of Litoměřice. The hops grown there were similar to Saaz, which is what I’ve specified in the recipe.

Pitched at 45º F, the temperature rose to a maximum of 50º F, before falling back gradually to 43º F.  Primary fermentation lasted a total of 9 days. Lagering lasted just over two months – a total of 72 days. 

1935 Heineken Pils
pilsner malt 9.25 lb 80.43%
flaked rice 2.25 lb 19.57%
Saaz 120 mins 0.33 oz
Saaz 60 mins 0.50 oz
Saaz 20 mins 0.75 oz
OG 1050
FG 1013
ABV 4.89
Apparent attenuation 74.00%
IBU 13.5
SRM 3
Mash double decoction  
Boil time 120 minutes
pitching temp 45º F
Yeast WLP830 German Lager


Pilsener mashing scheme
step duration (minutes)
Mash in at 51º C (124º F) 20
Mash in rice at 33º C (91.5º F) 5
Draw off first decoction and raise to 70º C (158º F) 45
Raise decoction to 100º C (212º F) 15
Boil first decoction 15
Rest whole mash at 66º C (151º F) 75
Draw off second decoction and raise to 100º C (212º F) 15
Boil second decoction 15
Mash at 75.5º C and mash out (168º F) 5
Sparge at 75.5º C (168º F) and rest 60
Draw off main wort 55
Draw off second wort 90
Total time 415
Source:  
Heineken Brouwjournalen van de proefziederij, 1935 - 1957 held at the Amsterdamse Stadtsarchief, document number 1785-1792, page 19.


Tuesday, 27 July 2021

Still more ridiculous Heineken detail

Well, that was a busy weekend. Pub on Saturday, roast dinner preparation on Sunday, as well as the IPA talk. Time for me to relax a little. Ant what better way  to relax than looking at Heineken's brewing processes in ridiculous detail. It's now the turn of primary fermentation

What strikes me is how generally similar it us to a UK top-fermentation. The temperature slowly rises in the first half of the, peaks, and then falls back to slightly below pitching temperature at the end. The only real difference is that the temperatures are all a good deal colder. And that the fermentation takes a few days longer. In the UK 5 or 6 days was typical, while all Heineken's beers took around 9.

It's a shame that there's no record of what happened in the lagering tanks. There must have been a fermentation because the finishing gravities were: Beiersch 4º Plato, Pils 3.4º Plato and Bok 5.6º Plato. The Pils seems to have been lagered about 2 months. I'm not so sure about the length for the other beers, though it does look as it was longer for Beiersch, possibly more than 4 months. 

Annoyingly, lagering is the one part of the process which isn't properly documented. I assume that the beer was slowly cooled to around zero. The tanks were bunged at a certain point implying that it was allowed to condition naturally.

I was going to head out for a walk but it's absolutely pissing it down. The tropical-style rain we've started getting quite frequently. Just as well Amsterdam never floods.

Beiersch 2nd Jul 1935 Primary Fermentation
Date Time Cellar temperature wort temperature gravity (Plato) % attenuation
2nd July 19 6.8 7 13.1  
3rd July 7 5.9 7.3    
  17.25 7.4 7.4    
4th July 7 5.8 8 12.2 7
  18 6.4 8.2    
5th July 7 5.8 9 10.7 18
  17.5 6.6 9.5    
6th July 7 5.6 10.3 8.7 34
  17 6.2 9.6    
7th July 9 5.6 9.7 7.3 45
  17 6.4 9.6    
8th July 7 5.7 9.3 6.8 48
  17.5 6.4 9.1    
9th July 7 5.4 8.8 6.6 50
  17.5 5.8 8.5    
10th July 7 5.3 6.1 6.4 51
Source: Heineken Brouwjournalen van de proefziederij, 1935 - 1957 held at the Amsterdamse Stadtsarchief, document number 1785-1792, page 11.

Pilsener 11th Jul 1935 Primary Fermentation
Date Time Cellar temperature wort temperature gravity (Plato) % attenuation
11th July 17 7.5 7 12.2  
12th July 7 5.7 7.2    
  18 3.2 7.6    
13th July 7 6.2 8 11.6 5
  13 5.4 8.2    
14th July 9 5.2 8.8 10.3 16
  17 5.6 9.2    
15th July 7 5.7 10 8.6 30
  17 5.5 9.7    
16th July 7 5.5 10 6.7 45
  17 6 9.6    
17th July 7 5.5 9.6 5.6 54
  17 5.5 9.7    
18th July 7 5.3 9.2 5 59
  18 7.2 9.2    
19th July 7 5.8 9 4.6 62
  18 6.6 8.6    
20th July 7 5.4 6 4.4 64
Source: Heineken Brouwjournalen van de proefziederij, 1935 - 1957 held at the Amsterdamse Stadtsarchief, document number 1785-1792, page 20.


Bok 5th Aug 1935 Primary Fermentation
Date Time Cellar temperature wort temperature gravity (Plato) % attenuation
5th Aug 18.5 7 6.9 17.3  
6th Aug 7 5.8 7.8    
  17.5 7.8 7.4    
7th Aug 7 5.9 8.1    
  19.5 5.7 7.9    
8th Aug 7.5 6.8 8.6 14.5 16
  17.5 7.8 9    
9th Aug 7 5.2 10.2 12.6 27
  17 6 10.5    
10th Aug 7 5.4 7 10.2 41
  13 5.8 7.2    
11th Aug - - -    
12th Aug 7 4.8 7.1 8.4 52
  17 5.4 7.2    
13th Aug 7 4.7 4.5 8.2 53
Source: Heineken Brouwjournalen van de proefziederij, 1935 - 1957 held at the Amsterdamse Stadtsarchief, document number 1785-1792, page 59.


Monday, 26 July 2021

Even more Heineken tedium

It's another busy day. Sunday dinner won't cook itself. I'll quickly bash this off while the oven is warming up. 

Today we're looking at Heineken's boiling schemes. Of all the essential processes involved in brewing, hop additions are some of the post poorly recorded. Other than a few Barclay Perkins records from between the wars, I've almost no information. Which is why I was dead happy to find Heineken's pilot brewery records had full hopping details.

Oddly enough, the standard records which have almost nothing about process do note the hop charges. Just not the timings.

What's unusual is that a very high proportion of the hops were added late in the boil, a mere 20 minutes before the end. And very few hops were added early in the boil. Presumably creating beers with a fair amount of hop aroma but little in the way of bitterness.

Got to leave you now. Time for the beef to go into the oven.

Pilsener 11th Jul 1935 Boil
Time kg %
120 mins 1 25.00%
60 mins 1.3 32.50%
20 mins 1.7 42.50%
Total 4  
Source:
Heineken Brouwjournalen van de proefziederij, 1935 - 1957 held at the Amsterdamse Stadtsarchief, document number 1785-1792, page 19.

Beiersch 2nd Jul 1935 Boil
Time kg %
120 mins 0.5 16.67%
60 mins 1 33.33%
20 mins 1.5 50.00%
Total 3  
Source:
Heineken Brouwjournalen van de proefziederij, 1935 - 1957 held at the Amsterdamse Stadtsarchief, document number 1785-1792, page 10.


Bock 15th Aug 1935 Boil
Time kg %
120 mins 0.6 24.00%
60 mins 0.8 32.00%
20 mins 1.1 44.00%
Total 2.5  
Source:
Heineken Brouwjournalen van de proefziederij, 1935 - 1957 held at the Amsterdamse Stadtsarchief, document number 1785-1792, page 19.

Sunday, 25 July 2021

More dull stuff avout Heineken in the 1930s

I keep finding reasons to delay finishing "Blitzkrieg!". It is complete. All but the small section on brewing in the Netherlands during the war are done. But I keep finding more information. And requesting the archive digitises more Heineken records.

You can request five documents per month. I used up my monthly ration this week. All on records of the pilot brewery. One in particular I'm keen to take a look in: 1944-46. I've currently no information later than 1943. I'm dead excited. Though patience is requires. Three to six weeks the process takes.

A couple of days later, I learnt Peter Symons had requested some of the same documents. He's been pointing me at various documents from the Heineken archive that he's already had digitised. Between the two of us, we should get through the interesting ones pretty quickly. Then move on to the Amstel stuff.

I can't take too long over this.  Got to be down the pub, well, brewery, quite soon for my Saturday afternoon pints with mates. The highlight of my unemployed week.  I'm not going to bang on too long about this double decoction. I want to line my stomach with some lunch before this afternoon session. Andrew chews his way through pints disturbingly quickly. I always drink faster when I'm with him.

Heineken Pilsener was mashed very differently to their Münchener, which had one more decoction. The heating and boiling of the decoction were shorter. While the saccharification rest at 66º C was far longer. The two just about balanced each other out and the whole process was only 5 minutes shorter, despite there being one fewer decoction.

The shorter boils make sense. They'd have been wary of darkening the wort. Not sure about the reason for longer rest.

That's enough about decoction. I'm thinking about my sandwich. Dolores made meatballs. Always dead good. This batch are particularly nice.

 

Pilsener 11th Jul 1935
step duration (minutes)
Mash in at 51º C (124º F) 20
Mash in rice at 33º C (91.5º F) 5
Draw off first decoction and raise to 70º C (158º F) 45
Raise decoction to 100º C (212º F) 15
Boil first decoction 15
Rest whole mash at 66º C (151º F) 75
Draw off second decoction and raise to 100º C (212º F) 15
Boil second decoction 15
Mash at 75.5º C and mash out (168º F) 5
Sparge at 75.5º C (168º F) and rest 60
Draw off main wort 55
Draw off second wort 90
Total time 415
Source:
Heineken Brouwjournalen van de proefziederij, 1935 - 1957 held at the Amsterdamse Stadtsarchief, document number 1785-1792, page 19.

Saturday, 24 July 2021

Reminding you of the mega IPA event tomorrow. Where I'll be doing my talking thing.  Among with some other blokes.

Informative and fun, I hope.


This Sunday there's a bug IPA event with Vinnie Cilurzo, Mike Karnowski and Mitch Steele. Plus me giving a talk on the history of the style. You can find more details and register for the event here:

https://www.crowdcast.io/e/IPA-Past-Present-Future/register

Let's Brew - 1886 Barclay Perkins PA

You're probably bored shitless by WW II and Heineken, so here's a complete change of pace. A Bitter from the 19th century. A recipe which will feature in my book after "Blitzkrieg!". A book which, although I haven't officially started it yet, already runs to over 16,000 words.

Barclay Perkins were very late to the Pale Ale game. While London rivals Whitbread had introduced their version in 1865, Barclays waited until the 1880s to follow suit. I’m not sure why it took them so long. Perhaps, like Courage, they took their Pale Ale from another brewery which had the right water profile for the style.

By Barclay Perkins’ standards, the batch size was tiny. Brewed on their small plant, it was of a mere 97 barrels. While X Mild Ale was bashed out 1,000 barrels at a time and even the powerful Stock Ale KKK was brewed in batches of 700 barrels. It demonstrates how much of a niche product Pale Ale was at the time.

The effect of the 1880 Free Mash Tun is clear to see in the grist, where there’s unmalted grain in the form of flaked rice. In the early days of adjuncts, this seems to have been a popular choice. Though later most brewers switched to maize. Rice does make sense for a Pale Ale, however, as lightness of both body and colour were highly desirable characteristics.

Two types of East Kent hops, one from the 1884 harvest, the other from 1885 were employed, along with Worcesters, also from 1885. The dry hops weren’t recorded for the is brew, however they were in one 15 years or so later and I’ve used that figure. Which, at 12 ozs. per barrel, was rather a lot.

1886 Barclay Perkins PA
pale malt 9.00 lb 73.47%
flaked rice 1.50 lb 12.24%
No. 1 invert sugar 1.75 lb 14.29%
Fuggles 105 mins 2.00 oz
Goldings 60 mins 2.00 oz
Goldings 30 mins 2.00 oz
Goldings dry hops 1.50 oz
OG 1058
FG 1013
ABV 5.95
Apparent attenuation 77.59%
IBU 75
SRM 6.5
Mash at 150º F
Sparge at 160º F
Boil time 105 minutes
pitching temp 60º F
Yeast Wyeast 1099 Whitbread ale




Friday, 23 July 2021

Correct mashing scheme for Heineken Beiersch

Since getting hold of the detailed brewing records from Heineken's pilot plant, I'm having to go back and modify the recipes I've published. The process has kicked off with their Münchener. For the simple reason that it's the first beer in the brewing book.

Mt guess that it was double decocted turned out to wrong. In reality, a triple decoction was performed. As the sole purpose of this experiment was connected with the brewing water used, I think we can be pretty sure that the mashing scheme was the same as in the full-size brew house.

The whole mash gets two rests, one at 55º C and another at 67º C. Which equate to a protein rest and saccharification rest, which I guess what you would expect. It looks like a fairly classic triple decoction mash.

Heineken seem to have been trying quite hard to replicate a beer in the Bavarian style.This is exactly the type of complicated mashing scheme employed by Munich brewers. However, this isn't how they brewed their Pils, which went for a simpler double decoction.

I can't imagine Heineken mash in anything like such a complicated manner today. I wonder how long they stuck with decocting?

Beiersch 2nd Jul 1935
step duration (minutes)
Mash in at 37º C (99º F) 20
Raise whole mash to 50º C (122º F) 5
Draw off first decoction and raise to 70º C (158º F) 30
Boil first decoction 30
Rest whole mash at 55º C (131º F) 15
Draw off second decoction and raise to 70º C (158º F) 20
Boil second decoction 20
Rest whole mash at 67º C (153º F) 10
Draw off third decoction and raise to 100º C (212º F) 5
Boil third decoction 20
Mash at 74.5º C and mash out (166º F) 5
Sparge at 75º C (167º F) and rest 60
Draw off main wort 65
Draw off srcond wort 115
Total time 420
Source:
Heineken Brouwjournalen van de proefziederij, 1935 - 1957 held at the Amsterdamse Stadtsarchief, document number 1785-1792, page 10.

 


Thursday, 22 July 2021

More Heineken information, more work for me

I should be pleased, really. Peter Symons has been busy again getting the Amsterdamse Stadsarchief to digitise records. And he's come across something that I looked for, but couldn't find. Details of Heineken's brewing process. In the nattily=named document "Brouwjournalen van de proefziederij, met daarin tevens opgenomen gegevens van de gist- en legkelder. , 1935 - 1957".

Unlike the brewing records, it lists the brewing process in great detail. In particular, the mashing and boiling schemes. Things I had to just guess at before. Great, in the greater scheme of things. But it means that I have to rewrite all the Heineken recipes in "Blitzkrieg!".

Some of my guesses weren't far wrong. The Pis did have a double decoction, not much different from my guess. And I was correct about some numbers signifying the hop addition quantities. Which, weirdly, increase the later the addition. The timings I got wrong, however. Rather than 90 minutes, 60 minutes and 30 minutes, they were 120 minutes, 60 minutes and 20 minutes. Not so far wrong. I'm pleased that I got that close.

Beiersch is where I was the most wrong. That had a triple decoction. But most unexpected was that the kleurmout - a roasted malt similar to black malt - was added to the lauter tun around the time of the third decoction. No way I would ever have guessed that.

Here are the mashing details of a test batch of Beiersch. Where they were looking at the difference between using well water and mains water.
 


Wednesday, 21 July 2021

Let's Brew Wednesday - 1941 Heineken Licht Lagerbier

The most obvious difference with the 1940 version is a reduction of the gravity by 8º. Leaving it barely 2% ABV.

The other big change is the introduction sugar into the grist. Something which happened to all Heineken’s beers. It’s odd that there was enough sugar knocking around at this point in the war for it to be used in brewing. Especially as Heineken hadn’t used it before the war. In the UK the opposite was true, with the quantity being reduced during the war and diverted for use in food.

The hopping rate has been maintained at the same level, but, as the gravity has been reduced the bitterness level has increased. The calculated IBUs going from 12.5 to 15.5. Still not exactly tongue-scorching. The hops themselves were of a single type from the 1940 harvest, described as “SuK” in the brewing record. No idea what might be, other than that the “S” might indicate “Saaz”.


1941 Heineken Licht Lagerbier
pilsner malt 3.50 lb 82.35%
sugar 0.75 lb 17.65%
Hallertau 90 mins 0.25 oz
Hallertau 60 mins 0.33 oz
Hallertau 30 mins 0.50 oz
OG 1021
FG 1005.5
ABV 2.05
Apparent attenuation 73.81%
IBU 15.5
SRM 2
Mash double decoction  
Boil time 90 minutes
pitching temp 48º F
Yeast WLP830 German Lager


Mash in at 35º C (95º F) 5 minutes
Warm whole mash to 52º C (126º F) 20 minutes
Rest whole mash at 52º C (126º F) (protein rest) 15 minutes
Draw off first mash and without a rest bring to the boil 30 minutes
Boil first mash 10 minutes
The rest of the mash remains at 52º C (126º F) 40 minutes
Mash at 70º C (158º F) 25 minutes
Rest whole mash at 70º C (158º F) (saccharification rest) 30 minutes
Draw off second mash and without a rest bring to the boil 15 minutes
Boil second mash 10 minutes
Mash at 76º C (169º F) and mash out 20 minutes

 

 

 


 

Tuesday, 20 July 2021

IPA past, present and future


 This Sunday there's a bug IPA event with Vinnie Cilurzo, Mike Karnowski and Mitch Steele. Plus me giving a talk on the history of the style. You can find more details and register for the event here:

https://www.crowdcast.io/e/IPA-Past-Present-Future/register

Heineken (Rotterdam) grists in 1942

Over at the grist, the big change is the arrival of sugar. Rather a lot of it, amounting to almost 30% of the total. It was used in a rather odd way, however. Rather than just being added to the wort during the boil, it seems to have been fermented separately and then blended with the wort post-fermentation. For each brew there are two entries in record, one for the standard wort and another for a sugar brew. Both had the same gravities.

Otherwise, the elements remain the same: pilsner malt as base, backed up by kleurmout, broeimout and caramelmout. There has been a change in the proportions, however, with the darker beers containing far more kleurmout than previously. Doubtless to maintain the required dark colour in a wort which is not only much weaker, but also contains a large amount of sugar. The proportions of broeimout and caramelmout have also been modified, with less of the former and more of the latter. Not sure what the motivation behind that change might have been.

Another modification is the addition of kleurmout to the pale beers. Obviously, again for colour-correction purposes.

Heineken (Rotterdam) grists in 1942
Date Beer Style pilsner malt Kleur-mout broei-mout Caramel-mout sugar
26th Jun Li Licht Lagerbier 70.00% 1.88%     28.13%
26th Jun Beiersche Münchener 49.69% 10.94% 5.63% 5.63% 28.13%
29th Jun Do Donker Lagerbier 49.69% 10.94% 5.63% 5.63% 28.13%
28th Jun P dun Pils 68.75% 3.13%     28.13%
1st Jul P Pils 69.37% 0.90%     29.73%
Source:
Heineken brewing record held at the Amsterdamse Stadsarchief, document number 834 - 1760.