Sunday 30 June 2024

Cairnes grists in 1923

Time to look inside the beers. Though they’re simpler than you might expect. There are only five elements to the grists: pale malt, roast barley, sugar and caramel.  But none of the beers contains more than four of them.

Cairnes were still using a brewing book that they’d had printed three decades or so earlier. Which causes some problems. Because a couple of the ingredients are hard-coded in the books: BPG (Beane’s Patent Grist) and patent malt. And, by 1923, they were no longer using either of them. With BPG replaced by “flakes” and patent malt by roast barley.

What type of sugar was it? I can only guess. And that guess would be some sort of invert. Probably No. 2. But it could also be something simple like glucose. While I’m on about what I’m guessing, I’ve also guessed that the lakes are maize. They could also be rice.

With the high percentage of roast barley, the two Stouts must have tasted pretty, er, roasty. Other than that and pale malt, there’s not much else. Just a small amount of caramel. No other sugar or adjuncts.

There’s a reason that the Bitter and Strong Ale grists are so similar: they were sometimes parti-gyled together. 

Cairnes grists in 1923
Beer Style pale malt roast barley flaked maize other sugar caramel
Bitter Ale Pale Ale 83.46%   9.82% 6.55% 0.18%
Strong Ale Strong Ale 86.66%   6.59% 6.60% 0.15%
Single Stout Stout 86.04% 11.40%     2.56%
Double Stout  Stout 89.88% 8.56%     1.56%
Cairnes brewing record held at the Guinness archives, document number GDB/BR17/1257.

Saturday 29 June 2024

Let's Brew - 1923 Cairnes Single Stout

I’m calling this Single Stout purely because that’s what it’s called in the brewing records. Though, in reality, it looks rather like a Porter. Whatever it was, it formed the overwhelming majority of what Cairnes brewed.

I had been contemplating writing about how little roast barley was used in Ireland. Outside Guinness, of course. Until I came across a note of materials used at the bottom of one page. Which included a column or roast barley.

This is the problem of getting ingredients hard-coded in the pre-printed brewing records. Cairnes records two ingredients so listed: BPG (Beane’s Patent Grist) and patent malt. BPG was dropped before WW I, being replaced by “flakes”. Which I’m guessing were flaked maize, but which could have been rice. And, at some point, patent malt was replaced by roast barley. It’s just impossible to see when.

Other than the roast barley, there are just two other elements to the grist: pale malt and caramel. Interestingly, no other sugar and no adjuncts. It’s far simpler than a London Porter recipe.

Three types of English hops, all from the 1921 harvest. 

1923 Cairnes Single Stout
pale malt 8.75 lb 90.21%
roast barley 0.75 lb 7.73%
caramel 2000 SRM 0.20 lb 2.06%
Fuggles 120 mins 0.75 oz
Fuggles 60 mins 0.75 oz
Goldings 30 mins 0.75 oz
OG 1042
FG 1014
ABV 3.70
Apparent attenuation 66.67%
IBU 33
SRM 33
Mash at 155º F
Sparge at 170º F
Boil time 120 minutes
pitching temp 58.25º F
Yeast Wyeast 1084 Irish ale

Friday 28 June 2024

Should I include this in "Keg!"?

I've done quite a lot of research for my book on the 1970s, "Keg!". And assembled all sorts of tables. Just not sure I should use everything.

One which has troubled me pretty much sine I assembled it, is of all the UK breweries in the mid-1970s and the beers they brewed. I ind it interesting. But it will take up a lot of space. And does anyone other, than me, give a toss about this stuff?

I'm undecided as to its use. And I'd be interested in your opinion. Would it just be a waste of paper? Or a fascinating insight into 1970s brewing?

To help you decide, here are a couple of examples. Let me know i you'd like more brewery info, like its location and county.

Tied houses 70      
Mild Mild draught 1032 Dark Mild
Bitter Pale Ale draught 1036 distinctive
Strong Ale Old Ale draught 1042
Tally Ho Barley Wine draught 1075  Winter only
Bitter Pale Ale keg    
Champion Pale Ale Pale Ale bottled 1032  
Fishermans Strong Pale Ale bottled    
Braodside Pale Ale bottled 1068  
Tally Ho Barley Wine bottled 1075  
Nut Brown Ale Brown Ale bottled   medium sweet

Ann Street
Tied houses 50      
Best Bitter Pale Ale keg   well hopped
Extra Special Bitter Pale Ale keg   stronger and sweeter
Mary Ann Pale Ale Pale Ale bottled    
Mary Ann Special Pale Ale bottled    
Mary Ann Brown Ale Brown Ale bottled   medium sweet
Mary Ann Stout Stout bottled   Dry Stout

Thursday 27 June 2024

Cairnes beers in 1923

"When are you going to write more about Irish beer?", I'm often asked. (Well, I'm sure at least one person has asked me.) The short answer is: now.

I've been very busy or the last couple of months. Either travelling, preparing or travelling or writing about travelling. Then there's that other thing I've been working on that I can't tell you about. Today is the first time in ages I haven't been tied up with something. And could get back to some basic work. Like trawling through brewing records.

Cairnes records, to be specific. Stuff from just before and after WW I. Quite fascinating. By the end o the war, they were just brewing two beers: Single Stout and Bitter Ale. Mostly the former. Though with gravities of 1039 and 1044, respectively, in early 1918, they were stronger than their English equivalents. For the simple reason that the average gravity brewers had to stick to was higher in Ireland.

I've chosen to look at 1923 because that's when things, in the brewing world at least, were starting to get back to normal. Or at least all into the pattern that would continue through the 1920s and 1930s. And I've more than just to beers to play with.

Cairnes entered WW I with a range of five beers: two Mild Ales, one Bitter Ale and two Stouts. Though you could argue that Single Stout was really a Porter.

In 1923, things look quite different. No sign o the Mild Ales. (Though I could have missed them, as they weren’t very frequent brews.) And the addition o a new Strong Ale. The two Stouts remain the same.

Unsurprisingly, the beers which survived are weaker. Ten degrees in the case of the Bitter Ale, nine or Single Stout and twelve or Double Stout. On the other hand, the hopping rates per quarter have remained at about the same level. Interesting, that. Attenuation has remained around the same.

The beers look like they all into classes from the last set of WW I price controls. That is, Bitter Ale and Single Stout look like 6d per pint beers, Strong Ale and Double Stout like 8d beers. Though, of course, the Cairnes brewery, being in Drogheda, was no longer in the UK in 1923. And UK rules and taxation no longer applied. 

Cairnes beers in 1914
Beer Style OG FG ABV App. Atten-uation lbs hops/ qtr hops lb/brl
2d Ale Mild 1038 1012 3.44 68.42% 7.89 1.14
Mild Ale Mild 1062 1022 5.29 64.52% 6.21 2.06
Bitter Ale Pale Ale 1050 1019 4.1 62.00% 9.64 1.81
Single Stout Stout 1050 1014.5 4.7 71.00% 6.7 1.27
Double Stout  Stout 1067 1023 5.82 65.67% 8.49 2.42
Cairnes brewing record held at the Guinness archives, document number GDB/SUB/0022.

Cairnes beers in 1923
Beer Style OG FG ABV App. Atten-uation lbs hops/ qtr hops lb/brl
Bitter Ale Pale Ale 1040 1015 3.31 62.50% 9.97 1.35
Strong Ale Strong Ale 1055 1014 5.42 74.55% 10.06 1.89
Single Stout Stout 1041 1013 3.70 68.29% 8.50 1.27
Double Stout  Stout 1055 1022 4.37 60.00% 8.92 1.42
Cairnes brewing record held at the Guinness archives, document number GDB/BR17/1257.

Wednesday 26 June 2024

Let's Brew Wednesday - 1898 Cairnes Single Stout

In Ireland, the terms Single Stout and Porter seem to have been used interchangeably. And, looking at the gravity, this is very much in line with a London Porter.

There’s not very much to the grist. As to malts, there’s just pale base malt and black malt. Though there were two types of pale malt, about 75% made from Irish barley and the rest from Chilean barley. Not the absence of brown malt, which seems typical of Irish Black Beers.

The other element is something called Beane’s Patent Grist. Which was a type of flaked rice high in dextrin. I’ve substituted simple flaked maize. If you want to go super authentic, you could add a little dextrin.

There were three types of hops. Half were Poperinge from the 1896 harvest. The rest were split equally between English hops from the 1897 harvest and undated Californian hops. The hopping rate, at 7.5 lbs per quarter (336 lbs) of malt, is pretty reasonable. And a bit higher than in London, where the rate was around 6 lbs per quarter. 

1898 Cairnes Single Stout
pale malt 11.00 lb 86.55%
black malt 0.67 lb 5.27%
flaked rice 1.00 lb 7.87%
caramel 2000 SRM 0.04 lb 0.31%
Strisselspalt 120 mins 1.50 oz
Cluster 60 mins 0.75 oz
Fuggles 30 mins 0.75 oz
OG 1054
FG 1011
ABV 5.69
Apparent attenuation 79.63%
IBU 39
SRM 26
Mash at 151º F
Sparge at 170º F
Boil time 120 minutes
pitching temp 60º F
Yeast Wyeast 1084 Irish ale

Tuesday 25 June 2024

The search for a new local

It's been a couple of months since the Butcher's Tears taproom closed. I'm still not over it. And we still haven't settled on a replacement.

We've been giving Checkpoint Charlie a try for the last few weeks. It's an OK pub. But it still doesn't feel like a local yet. Why not? That's a tricky question. One I'm not sure I can answer very well. Because it's not about logic. It's about feelings.

What makes you feel at home in a pub? It's a complex question. At least part of it to do with interaction. With the barstaff. With other customers. It doesn't have to be anything very profound. Or very long. Just a few sentences. Or even just a few words. It doesn't need to be much. Even a simple smile or nod.

That isn't happening at Checkpoint Charlie. Maybe we just haven't been going there long enough. Or it could just be that there aren't many others who go there every Saturday. I can't say that I've recognised any customers there yet. Or any of the servers. Perhaps because it's quite a large pub. I'm not sure.

Whatever the reason, we're not feeling Checkpoint Charlie. So we're going to try somewhere else next Saturday. One of the places that was on our initial list of possible new locals. Sound Garden.

It ticks most of the boxes. Including the most important one: decent beer at a decent price. It's also closer to home for me and the kids. Which is important for a lazy git like me. At the moment, while the number 2 tram is diverted, we can get there directly. Which is another plus. OK, it's further for Will to travel. But he's often swanning around in the jungle somewhere.

Let's see how Sound Garden goes. Maybe it will work out. Or maybe we'll give Checkpoint Charlie another try.

Monday 24 June 2024

Cask is king

I don't get to drink cask beer every week. Let's think when last I could. Right. Last century. Not even the final decade. Perhaps my views are rose-tinted. Or seen through red-raged eyes. Who knows.

For me, cask beer is sitting in the Cardigan Arms drinking pint after pint of Tetley's Mild with Simon. Beer that just flowed down the throat, without interrupting the conversation. Or a Friday night after-work pub-crawl in Leeds. When a dozen pints of Tetley's Mild might have disappeared by the time we ended up on North Street. Lusting for a curry.

Recent trips to the US and the UK confirmed cask's social role. And why, when it comes to flavour and sociability, it can't be beaten.

Cask beer doesn't intrude. It's happy to sit in the corner reading a newspaper. When you pay him attention, with a raised glass, he'll smile back, lifting his own pint. But he'll never talk over you. Or start aggressively pointing a finger.

Other beer may clamour for attention. Waving its arms saying "Look at me." All jagged elbows, flashy clothes and too much cologne.

I've always loved cask beer. Since I was at school. I really appreciate it now, as an old man. Who, after decades of work, is done with being shouted at.

Sunday 23 June 2024

1814 beer flood

I came across this interesting first-hand account of the catastrophe at Meux's brewery in 1814. When a large vat burst and the ensuing flood caused multiple deaths. Either from drowning or being crushed by collapsing buildings.

Meux's brewery in 1895

"Mr. George Crick, after being sworn, deposed as follows:- I reside at No. 215, Tottenham Court Road, and am store-house clerk to Messrs. Henry Meux and Co. I have been 17 years in the capacity of store-house clerk; eleven years at the premises in liquorpond-street, and six years, on the 10th March next, on those where the accident occurred. I have been connected with the brew-house in this neighbourhood ever since the present firm came into it. - The accident happened on Monday evening, at half past five o'clock. I was on a plat-form about thirty feet from the vat when it burst. I heard the crash, as it went off, and  immediately ran to the store-house, where the vat was situated. I found myself up to the knees in beer."
Exeter Flying Post - Thursday 27 October 1814, page 3.

Mr. Crick had 17 years experience in working in vat houses. I think we can accept that he knew what he was talking about when it came to vats.

"The vat which had given way had been full of beer within four inches. It contained 3,555 barrels. We do not like to till the vats too full for fear of accidents. The four inches would have contained from 30 to 40 barrels more. The first object I saw in the store-house was my brother; one of the men had just pulled him out from among the buts. There were many butts in the store-house - it was a racking place, where much beer was racked out for the trade."
Exeter Flying Post - Thursday 27 October 1814, page 3. 

These are the sort of details that I like to find. That these massive vats weren't totally fillled. What type of accident did they fear? That the vats would burst? I'm not sure how an extra 30 or 40 barrels on top of 3,555 barrels would have made much difference. Interesting that they were racking beer into butts to be delivered to pubs. That's a large cask - 108 gallons - to be manoeuvered into a pub cellar.\

"We then examined the place as well as we could. The whole vat, we found, had given way, as completely as if a quart pot had been turned up on the table. On the side next Russell-street [the street at the top of the map], it blew down a brick wall, belonging to the brewhouse, which was 22 inches broad in the strongest part. The wall, I believe, was 25 feet high - that is, aout three feet higher than the vat. It caused dreadfull devastation on the premises: it knocked four butts over, and staved several - the pressure was so excessive. The houses next Russell-street and New-street were much damaged, but I do not know the persons who were buried in the ruins."
Exeter Flying Post - Thursday 27 October 1814, page 3.

That's a very substantial wall that was washed away - 2 feet wide and 25 feet high. I wouldn't want to have been behind that when it collapsed.

"None of us could go to see the accident which had happened outwardly, because we had too much to do on our own premises. We were employed in saving what beer we could. There were 7,000 barrels in two vats on the premises. Of these 3,555 barrels were lost at once: and the shock was so dreadful as to break off the cock of the adjoining vat; of the contents of the latter we saved about 800 barrels. This vat was of the same size, within nine barrels, as that which gave way.
Exeter Flying Post - Thursday 27 October 1814, page 3.

The flood wasn't just caused by the barrel that burst. Most of the beer from a second vat - whose tap was broken of by the beer from the first vat - also contributed. Though this would have been lowing much more slowly.

"I can not account for the accident. The vat which gave way had been built about ten years, and it has been full of beer for two-thirds of the time, during which I have been on the premises. It was built on uprights or pillars of oak. The foundation did not give way. When the wreck is cleared, the bottom of the vat will be found perfectly level; neither did the vat touch the wall. It stood full eight inches from it. We can account for the accident in no other manner, but by the hoops giving way - by the rivets bursting. An hour before the accident a hoop was started; hoops frequently burst - two or three times a year - but such a circumstance does not produce any idea of danger."
Exeter Flying Post - Thursday 27 October 1814, page 3.

Slightly worrying to hear how often hoops burst. It would definitely freaked me out, seeing a hoop break on such a large vat. 

"If I conceived there was danger on Monday evening, neither I nor my brother would have remained near the vat. I spoke to Mr. Young, one of the partners in the brewhouse, about a hoop flying off. He is himself a vat builder, and he said that no harm whatever would ensue. The vat had formerly been more full - and the beer which was in it, when it gave way, had been brewed between nine and ten months. It was an old beer vat. If it had been a new beer vat, I should not have wondered so much, because the fermentation of the liquor might produce such an effect. The new beer vats are covered - but in such a manner that the cover will give way, and thus prevent the bursting of the vat."
Exeter Flying Post - Thursday 27 October 1814, page 3.

Meux's brewery in 1836

The beer had clearly been in the vat or some time: 9 or 10 months. Which tells us something about how long Porter was being aged. I'm struggling to understand what he means by the vat being "covered". Because I'm pretty sure that they didn't leave vats with no cover on the top at all.

"I was on the top of the vat when the hoop flew off. I stated the circumstance to Mr. Young - who told me to write to his father, that it might be mended. Soon after I had written the note, the accident took place. There was an opening at the top of the vat - a flap - which would have given way bad the action of the liquor been upwards. We sometimes stop down a vat, when the beer has gone through the process of fermentation. The hoop we discovered off; an hour before the vat burst, was about three feet from the bottom. In the lower part of the premises, in a place the workmen call "the regions below," there is a cell capable of holding 2,l00 barrels; the pipe communicating with this place was broken, and the beer was destroyed. Between eight and nine thousand barrels of porter have been lost."
Exeter Flying Post - Thursday 27 October 1814, page 3.

I wonder exactly what is meant by stopping down a vat. Does that mean sealing it up?

8,000 to 9,000 barrels is quite a loss. The wholesale price of a barrel of Porter was around £3, making the value of the lost beer £24,000 to £27,000. A very large sum back in those days.

Saturday 22 June 2024

Let's Brew - 1898 Cairnes E.I. Ale

My Irish recipes seem to have gone down well. So here's another one. As I get stuck into the Irish records I harvested recently, I'm sure I'll be posting more.

I would have guessed that this beer was an IPA, with EI standing for “Export India”” or “East India”. Except that there’s a stronger beer called IP that I assume is an IPA. So I’m totally befuddled as to what EI means.

I am pretty sure that this is some sort of Pale Ale. At least I’m certain about that. Given the strength, this looks like it’s fitting the Ordinary Bitter slot.

There’s not a lot to the grist. Consisting of just base pale malt and sugar. Not quite sure exactly what the latter was. I’ve sort of guessed at No. 2 invert. It was slightly more complicated than that, as 75% of the base malt was made from Irish barley, the rest from Chilean.

There were two types o English hops, both from the 1897 harvest. 

1898 Cairnes E.I. Ale
pale malt 11.00 lb 91.67%
No. 2 invert sugar 1.00 lb 8.33%
Goldings 120 mins 1.50 oz
Goldings 60 mins 1.50 oz
Goldings 30 mins 1.50 oz
Goldings dry hops 1.00 oz
OG 1055
FG 1015
ABV 5.29
Apparent attenuation 72.73%
IBU 58
Mash at 151º F
Sparge at 165º F
Boil time 120 minutes
pitching temp 60º F
Yeast Wyeast 1084 Irish ale

Friday 21 June 2024

Cask beer

Jeff Alworth's piece on cask beer got me thinking. Which is always a bad thing. Hopefully, writing will banish my thoughts and leave my head empty enough for a day watching reality TV.

His basic argument is that CAMRA's refusal to accept cask breathers is the reason for cask's decline. If only CAMRA hadn't been a bunch of romantics, who came up with a non-technical description of what cask was. Except that isn't the case.

Cask-conditioned beer was an industry-defined term. Used by brewing professionals. CAMRA just slightly refined the term to exclude any use of extraneous CO2. Compared to a term like "Craft beer", cask is precisely and simply defined.

To realise why early CAMRA was so against the addition of any CO2, you need to understand what the UK beer market was like in the 1970s. There was quite a lot of cask beer which was either kept under blanket pressure or served by CO2 pressure. CAMRA, rightly in my opinion, opted to not count such beer as real cask. Had they done so, it would have muddied the waters and made the definition of cask more complicated and confusing as to when CO2 pressure was acceptable and when it wasn't.

Seeing the cask breather as the solution to cask beers decline is far too simplistic. It assumes, for one, that the reason or bad-quality cask is always that the cask has been open for too long. Which just isn't the case.

Cask beer is a delicate, perishable product. One that can be fucked up at several points between  racking and serving. During transportation or storage, or, most likely, by poor cellarmanship. The latter either through lack of training or simply lack of interest.

All of these points of failure have been exacerbated by the collapse of the brewery-owned tied house model. Once beer was taken directly from brewery to pub, on a company's own drays. Now that supply chain is much more complicated.

When brewers owned pubs, they were much more careful about the quality of the beer they sold. And, the good ones, at least, provided training and support for their landlords to help them keep their beer in top condition. With that link broken, who is there now to help publicans look after their beer?

And all this is ignoring one of the biggest factors in the decline of any style of beer: ageing drinkers. The decline in cask beer is never going to be reversed unless more young people start drinking it. That's the biggest challenge facing cask beer. Not whether or not to use cask breathers. 

One last point: why is cask cheaper than keg? For purely historical reasons. When keg was introduced in the 1950s, it was marketed as a premium product. Which sold at a premium price. It was exactly the same with Lager. And is still true today. Keg Ale and Lager cost more than cask just because that's what drinkers are used to. And what brewers/publicans can get away with.

Thursday 20 June 2024

Fullers vs Youngs in the early 1930s last Porter and Stout tables

You're probably feeling relieved that I'm finally getting to the end of this interminable series. Meaning I'm going to have to think up something new to write about. I wonder what that might be?

And what about the hops? Pretty much the same as all the other beers. That is, two types of English hops from the two most recent seasons.

Unlike in modern brewing, back in the day it wasn’t unusual to use the same hops in every beer. Or to use the same mashing scheme for every beer. Basically, they didn’t piss around as much as modern brewers do.

Process time. The funnest bit of all. Tables. Any big surprises? Well. No. The Fullers beers were boiled for longer. And pitched a few degrees warmer. Resulting in fermentations that were a few days shorter than at Youngs. 

Fullers vs Youngs Porter and Stout hops
Brewer Beer Style hop 1 hop 2
Fullers P Porter English 1929 English 1930
Fullers BS Stout English 1929 English 1930
Youngs P Porter Kent 1930 CS Sussex 1931
Youngs S Stout Kent 1930 CS Sussex 1931
Fullers brewing record held at the brewery.
Young's brewing record held at Battersea Library, document number YO/RE/1/1.

Fullers vs Youngs Porter and Stout processes
Brewer Beer boil time (hours) Pitch temp max. fermen-tation temp length of fermen-tation (days)
Fullers P 1.5 1.75 61º F 68º F 7
Fullers BS 1.5 1.75 61.5º F 68.5º F 5
Youngs P 2 2 59º F 68º F 8
Youngs S 2 2 59º F 69.25º F 9
Fullers brewing record held at the brewery.
Young's brewing record held at Battersea Library, document number YO/RE/1/1.

Wednesday 19 June 2024

Let's Brew Wednesday - 1975 Youngs Ram Rod

The final Pale Ale in Young’s portfolio was Ram Rod. A strong Pale Ale only usually available in bottled form.

Ram Rod is very similar to Special Bitter, being just a few degrees stronger and with exactly the same recipe. When they increased of Special Bitter later in 1975, the two beers became identical. Only to diverge again later at some point.

It’s a pretty simple grist of just pale malt, flaked maize and malt extract. Though in that pale malt I’ve included the small amount of enzymic malt that the original contained.

No. 3 is a bit of an odd one in a pale ale. Which is a change from the No. 1 sugar used in the Pale Ales in 1970. Not sure why they would make the swap. Because, as they were often parti-gyled together, the same recipe change applies for all the other Pale Ales. Though this particular brew was single-gyle.

Two types of English hops, no further particulars given. So, I’ve guessed Fuggles and Goldings. Again. Sorry for being so boring. 

1975 Youngs Ram Rod
pale malt 8.75 lb 82.63%
flaked maize 1.00 lb 9.44%
malt extract 0.33 lb 3.12%
No. 3 invert sugar 0.50 lb 4.72%
caramel 1000 SRM 0.01 lb 0.09%
Fuggles 120 min 1.50 oz
Goldings 15 min 1.00 oz
OG 1048
FG 1007
ABV 5.42
Apparent attenuation 85.42%
IBU 24
Mash at 148º F
Sparge at 180º F
Boil time 105 minutes
pitching temp 61º F
Yeast WLP002 English Ale

Tuesday 18 June 2024

Fullers vs Youngs Porter and Stout adjuncts and sugars in the early 1930s

I',m done with my trip reports. Time to get back to where I was before. Which was comparing Fullers and Youngs Black Beers.

Oatmeal Stouts were all the rage between the wars. We can see both brewers were packaged at least some Stout as Oatmeal from the presence of oats. A purely token amount in the case of Fullers. Something more substantial at Youngs. A quantity that probably had a noticeable effect on the character of the beer.

Instead, the Fullers beers have a decent amount of flaked maize. Just like all Fullers other beers.

Two sugars at each of the breweries, If you’ve been paying attention, obviously different ones. Special Dark and two types of caramel (Carameline and London caramel) at Fullers. So many different types of caramel they had in the past. It’s a nightmare.

At Youngs, it was bog-standard No. 3 invert and enigmatic "OM”.  From the name, I suspect the latter was a sugar specifically designed for Oatmeal Stout. Who knows what it might have contained. 

Fullers vs Youngs Porter and Stout adjuncts and sugars
Brewer Beer Style flaked maize oats no. 3 sugar Sp Dark OM caramel total sugar
Fullers P Porter 8.28% 0.66%   13.49%   4.91% 18.40%
Fullers BS Stout 8.28% 0.66%   13.49%   4.91% 18.40%
Youngs P Porter   7.23% 5.19%   5.19%   10.38%
Youngs S Stout   7.23% 5.19%   5.19%   10.38%
Fullers brewing record held at the brewery.
Young's brewing record held at Battersea Library, document number YO/RE/1/1.