Saturday, 24 July 2021

Reminding you of the mega IPA event tomorrow. Where I'll be doing my talking thing.  Among with some other blokes.

Informative and fun, I hope.


This Sunday there's a bug IPA event with Vinnie Cilurzo, Mike Karnowski and Mitch Steele. Plus me giving a talk on the history of the style. You can find more details and register for the event here:

https://www.crowdcast.io/e/IPA-Past-Present-Future/register

Let's Brew - 1886 Barclay Perkins PA

You're probably bored shitless by WW II and Heineken, so here's a complete change of pace. A Bitter from the 19th century. A recipe which will feature in my book after "Blitzkrieg!". A book which, although I haven't officially started it yet, already runs to over 16,000 words.

Barclay Perkins were very late to the Pale Ale game. While London rivals Whitbread had introduced their version in 1865, Barclays waited until the 1880s to follow suit. I’m not sure why it took them so long. Perhaps, like Courage, they took their Pale Ale from another brewery which had the right water profile for the style.

By Barclay Perkins’ standards, the batch size was tiny. Brewed on their small plant, it was of a mere 97 barrels. While X Mild Ale was bashed out 1,000 barrels at a time and even the powerful Stock Ale KKK was brewed in batches of 700 barrels. It demonstrates how much of a niche product Pale Ale was at the time.

The effect of the 1880 Free Mash Tun is clear to see in the grist, where there’s unmalted grain in the form of flaked rice. In the early days of adjuncts, this seems to have been a popular choice. Though later most brewers switched to maize. Rice does make sense for a Pale Ale, however, as lightness of both body and colour were highly desirable characteristics.

Two types of East Kent hops, one from the 1884 harvest, the other from 1885 were employed, along with Worcesters, also from 1885. The dry hops weren’t recorded for the is brew, however they were in one 15 years or so later and I’ve used that figure. Which, at 12 ozs. per barrel, was rather a lot.

1886 Barclay Perkins PA
pale malt 9.00 lb 73.47%
flaked rice 1.50 lb 12.24%
No. 1 invert sugar 1.75 lb 14.29%
Fuggles 105 mins 2.00 oz
Goldings 60 mins 2.00 oz
Goldings 30 mins 2.00 oz
Goldings dry hops 1.50 oz
OG 1058
FG 1013
ABV 5.95
Apparent attenuation 77.59%
IBU 75
SRM 6.5
Mash at 150º F
Sparge at 160º F
Boil time 105 minutes
pitching temp 60º F
Yeast Wyeast 1099 Whitbread ale




Friday, 23 July 2021

Correct mashing scheme for Heineken Beiersch

Since getting hold of the detailed brewing records from Heineken's pilot plant, I'm having to go back and modify the recipes I've published. The process has kicked off with their Münchener. For the simple reason that it's the first beer in the brewing book.

Mt guess that it was double decocted turned out to wrong. In reality, a triple decoction was performed. As the sole purpose of this experiment was connected with the brewing water used, I think we can be pretty sure that the mashing scheme was the same as in the full-size brew house.

The whole mash gets two rests, one at 55º C and another at 67º C. Which equate to a protein rest and saccharification rest, which I guess what you would expect. It looks like a fairly classic triple decoction mash.

Heineken seem to have been trying quite hard to replicate a beer in the Bavarian style.This is exactly the type of complicated mashing scheme employed by Munich brewers. However, this isn't how they brewed their Pils, which went for a simpler double decoction.

I can't imagine Heineken mash in anything like such a complicated manner today. I wonder how long they stuck with decocting?

Beiersch 2nd Jul 1935
step duration (minutes)
Mash in at 37º C (99º F) 20
Raise whole mash to 50º C (122º F) 5
Draw off first decoction and raise to 70º C (158º F) 30
Boil first decoction 30
Rest whole mash at 55º C (131º F) 15
Draw off second decoction and raise to 70º C (158º F) 20
Boil second decoction 20
Rest whole mash at 67º C (153º F) 10
Draw off third decoction and raise to 100º C (212º F) 5
Boil third decoction 20
Mash at 74.5º C and mash out (166º F) 5
Sparge at 75º C (167º F) and rest 60
Draw off main wort 65
Draw off srcond wort 115
Total time 420
Source:
Heineken Brouwjournalen van de proefziederij, 1935 - 1957 held at the Amsterdamse Stadtsarchief, document number 1785-1792, page 10.

 


Thursday, 22 July 2021

More Heineken information, more work for me

I should be pleased, really. Peter Symons has been busy again getting the Amsterdamse Stadsarchief to digitise records. And he's come across something that I looked for, but couldn't find. Details of Heineken's brewing process. In the nattily=named document "Brouwjournalen van de proefziederij, met daarin tevens opgenomen gegevens van de gist- en legkelder. , 1935 - 1957".

Unlike the brewing records, it lists the brewing process in great detail. In particular, the mashing and boiling schemes. Things I had to just guess at before. Great, in the greater scheme of things. But it means that I have to rewrite all the Heineken recipes in "Blitzkrieg!".

Some of my guesses weren't far wrong. The Pis did have a double decoction, not much different from my guess. And I was correct about some numbers signifying the hop addition quantities. Which, weirdly, increase the later the addition. The timings I got wrong, however. Rather than 90 minutes, 60 minutes and 30 minutes, they were 120 minutes, 60 minutes and 20 minutes. Not so far wrong. I'm pleased that I got that close.

Beiersch is where I was the most wrong. That had a triple decoction. But most unexpected was that the kleurmout - a roasted malt similar to black malt - was added to the lauter tun around the time of the third decoction. No way I would ever have guessed that.

Here are the mashing details of a test batch of Beiersch. Where they were looking at the difference between using well water and mains water.
 


Wednesday, 21 July 2021

Let's Brew Wednesday - 1941 Heineken Licht Lagerbier

The most obvious difference with the 1940 version is a reduction of the gravity by 8º. Leaving it barely 2% ABV.

The other big change is the introduction sugar into the grist. Something which happened to all Heineken’s beers. It’s odd that there was enough sugar knocking around at this point in the war for it to be used in brewing. Especially as Heineken hadn’t used it before the war. In the UK the opposite was true, with the quantity being reduced during the war and diverted for use in food.

The hopping rate has been maintained at the same level, but, as the gravity has been reduced the bitterness level has increased. The calculated IBUs going from 12.5 to 15.5. Still not exactly tongue-scorching. The hops themselves were of a single type from the 1940 harvest, described as “SuK” in the brewing record. No idea what might be, other than that the “S” might indicate “Saaz”.


1941 Heineken Licht Lagerbier
pilsner malt 3.50 lb 82.35%
sugar 0.75 lb 17.65%
Hallertau 90 mins 0.25 oz
Hallertau 60 mins 0.33 oz
Hallertau 30 mins 0.50 oz
OG 1021
FG 1005.5
ABV 2.05
Apparent attenuation 73.81%
IBU 15.5
SRM 2
Mash double decoction  
Boil time 90 minutes
pitching temp 48º F
Yeast WLP830 German Lager


Mash in at 35º C (95º F) 5 minutes
Warm whole mash to 52º C (126º F) 20 minutes
Rest whole mash at 52º C (126º F) (protein rest) 15 minutes
Draw off first mash and without a rest bring to the boil 30 minutes
Boil first mash 10 minutes
The rest of the mash remains at 52º C (126º F) 40 minutes
Mash at 70º C (158º F) 25 minutes
Rest whole mash at 70º C (158º F) (saccharification rest) 30 minutes
Draw off second mash and without a rest bring to the boil 15 minutes
Boil second mash 10 minutes
Mash at 76º C (169º F) and mash out 20 minutes

 

 

 


 

Tuesday, 20 July 2021

IPA past, present and future


 This Sunday there's a bug IPA event with Vinnie Cilurzo, Mike Karnowski and Mitch Steele. Plus me giving a talk on the history of the style. You can find more details and register for the event here:

https://www.crowdcast.io/e/IPA-Past-Present-Future/register

Heineken (Rotterdam) grists in 1942

Over at the grist, the big change is the arrival of sugar. Rather a lot of it, amounting to almost 30% of the total. It was used in a rather odd way, however. Rather than just being added to the wort during the boil, it seems to have been fermented separately and then blended with the wort post-fermentation. For each brew there are two entries in record, one for the standard wort and another for a sugar brew. Both had the same gravities.

Otherwise, the elements remain the same: pilsner malt as base, backed up by kleurmout, broeimout and caramelmout. There has been a change in the proportions, however, with the darker beers containing far more kleurmout than previously. Doubtless to maintain the required dark colour in a wort which is not only much weaker, but also contains a large amount of sugar. The proportions of broeimout and caramelmout have also been modified, with less of the former and more of the latter. Not sure what the motivation behind that change might have been.

Another modification is the addition of kleurmout to the pale beers. Obviously, again for colour-correction purposes.

Heineken (Rotterdam) grists in 1942
Date Beer Style pilsner malt Kleur-mout broei-mout Caramel-mout sugar
26th Jun Li Licht Lagerbier 70.00% 1.88%     28.13%
26th Jun Beiersche Münchener 49.69% 10.94% 5.63% 5.63% 28.13%
29th Jun Do Donker Lagerbier 49.69% 10.94% 5.63% 5.63% 28.13%
28th Jun P dun Pils 68.75% 3.13%     28.13%
1st Jul P Pils 69.37% 0.90%     29.73%
Source:
Heineken brewing record held at the Amsterdamse Stadsarchief, document number 834 - 1760.



Monday, 19 July 2021

Other Dutch Lagers in 1943

I'll be honest with, you won't be getting that many words from me today. It's a lovely sunny day and Have an appointment with my mates Will and Lucas in Butcher's Tears in an hour. No time for any fancy word-spinning.  Looking forward to a few pints, though.

I feel very comfortable at Butcher's Tears as they have lots of space outside. No rubbing shoulders with the next table. The beer's not bad, either. They quite often have a Mild, too. Only a 15-minute walk away. Perfect, really.

On with the post. Lots of tables stuck together by the occasional sentence. Relating to lagers brewed towards the end of the war.

If you thought the Pils set looked as watery as hell, wait until you see this lot. None manage to crawl much over 1% ABV. Yeah, party time! The slightly below average degree of attenuation doesn’t help the alcoholic qualities, but I suppose helped to leave them with at least a little body.

Dutch Licht Lagerbier in 1943
Date Brewer Town OG Plato FG Plato ABV App. Atten-uation Colour
25th Jan Drie Hoefijzers Breda 2.87 0.77 1.05 73.40% 0.58
26th Jan Bavaria Lieshout 3.02 1.05 0.98 65.51% 0.48
26th Jan Amstel Amsterdam 2.62 0.66 1.01 75.01% 2.8
26th Jan Heineken Rotterdam 2.85 0.71 1.08 75.30% 0.26
26th Jan Kruis van Bourgondie   2.94 0.86 1.05 71.00% 0.62
27th Jul Heineken Amsterdam 2.85 0.79 1.01 72.51% 0.32
27th Jul Heineken Rotterdam 2.88 0.93 0.98 67.96% 0.38
  Average   2.86 0.82 1.02 71.53% 0.78
Source:
Rapporten van laboratoriumonderzoeken naar producten van Heinekenbrouwerijen in binnen- en buitenland en naar producten van andere brouwerijen held at the Amsterdamse Stadsarchief, document number 834 - 1794.


It’s much the same story with the dark type of Lagerbier – low gravity, weedy ABV. And an even worse degree of attenuation. And a couple of examples which are barely even dark. Why would you bother drinking stuff as dilute as this? I guess because there was no alternative.

Dutch Donker Lagerbier in 1943
Date Brewer Town OG Plato FG Plato ABV App. Atten-uation Colour
25th Jan Grolsch Groenlo 8.22 1.74 3.33 79.38% 12.5
25th Jan Van Vollenhoven Amsterdam 3.06 1.07 1.01 65.31% 10.8
26th Jan Bavaria Lieshout 3.44 1.24 1.11 64.27% 5.8
26th Jan Kruis van Bourgondie   3.21 1.10 1.08 66.03% 14.5
26th Jan Heineken Rotterdam 2.96 1.01 0.98 66.15% 6.2
27th Jul Heineken Amsterdam 2.87 0.91 0.98 68.54% 4.8
27th Jul Heineken Rotterdam 3.04 1.39 0.78 54.58% 8.5
  Average   3.83 1.21 1.32 66.32% 9.01
Source:
Rapporten van laboratoriumonderzoeken naar producten van Heinekenbrouwerijen in binnen- en buitenland en naar producten van andere brouwerijen held at the Amsterdamse Stadsarchief, document number 834 - 1794.


Another weird outlier in the set, this time from Grolsch. Some lucky devils got to drink a beer that was actually intoxicating. Heady stuff.

Weirdly Holland’s wateriest beer style, Oud Bruin, averaged out stronger than Licht Lagerbier.

Dutch Oud Bruin in 1943
Date Brewer Town OG Plato FG Plato ABV App. Atten-uation Colour
25th Jan Van Vollenhoven Amsterdam 3.70 1.20 1.30 67.90% 25
26th Jan St. Servatius Maastricht 2.84 0.62 1.15 78.37% 7
26th Jan Gulpener Gulpen 3.19 0.87 1.19 72.98% 12.2
26th Jan Het Hert Corurau? 3.00 1.07 0.89 64.61% 11.5
  Average   3.18 0.94 1.13 70.96% 13.93
Source:
Rapporten van laboratoriumonderzoeken naar producten van Heinekenbrouwerijen in binnen- en buitenland en naar producten van andere brouwerijen held at the Amsterdamse Stadsarchief, document number 834 - 1794.


Surprised to see Gerste still being brewed at such a late date. Heineken had dropped theirs a couple of decades earlier.

Dutch Gerste in 1943
Date Brewer Town OG Plato FG Plato ABV App. Atten-uation Colour
26th Jan Phoenix Amersfoort 2.91 1.19 0.87 59.39% 0.8
26th Jan ZHB Den Haag 3.13 1.65 0.78 47.60% 1.8
26th Jan Oranjeboom Rotterdam 3.06 0.93 1.07 69.87% 5
  Average   3.03 1.26 0.90 58.95% 2.53
Source:
Rapporten van laboratoriumonderzoeken naar producten van Heinekenbrouwerijen in binnen- en buitenland en naar producten van andere brouwerijen held at the Amsterdamse Stadsarchief, document number 834 - 1794.


Overall, the effect of shortages was to concertina all the different styles together, leaving very little difference between them in terms of strength.

Wasn't that both fun and informative? Not really. Well, not both.

Sunday, 18 July 2021

Never work again

That was always my goal. Never work in the first place, really. 

Given my age and employment status, I think I might have finally achieved my life goal.

Like the New Kids.


Going to pass on the whore bit, mind. I'm a happily unemployed married man.



Heineken (Rotterdam) beers in 1942

1942 wasn’t a happy year for Dutch drinkers. Pils excepted, none of Heineken’s beers was intoxicating. And even that would only just about get you poised, if you had a great deal of determination.

I’m not sure what the point of P dun, that is “thin” Pils, it being almost identical to Licht Lagerbier. The only difference being ever so slightly fewer hops.

The hopping rates per hl are much the same as in 1941, despite the reduction in gravities. And because of that the hopping rates per 100 kg of malt are much higher, other than in the Pils. In the case of the Licht and Donker Lagerbiers it’s around double. Clearly hop supply was less of a problem than malt supply.

Attenuation also remains unchanged from the previous year at a little over 70%. Down a little on the pre-war average of around 75%. Doubtless a result of wanting leave at least a little body.

Heineken (Rotterdam) grists in 1942
Date Beer Style lager malt Kleur-mout broei-mout Caramel-mout sugar
26th Jun Li Licht Lagerbier 70.00% 1.88%     28.13%
26th Jun Beiersche Münchener 49.69% 10.94% 5.63% 5.63% 28.13%
29th Jun Do Donker Lagerbier 49.69% 10.94% 5.63% 5.63% 28.13%
28th Jun P dun Pils 68.75% 3.13%     28.13%
1st Jul P Pils 69.37% 0.90%     29.73%
Source:
Heineken brewing record held at the Amsterdamse Stadsarchief, document number 834 - 1760.

 

Saturday, 17 July 2021

Let's Brew - 1957 Robert Younger SS

Post-WW II Scottish brewing can be pretty weird. Mostly the result of brewers just having one recipe.

SS is one of the oddest Stouts I’ve come across. Because it was parti-gyled with 60/- and Export, two Pale Ales. It’s identical to 60/-, save for what happened in the copper. It’s a sort of hybrid parti-gyle as one of the coppers has the wort intended for the Stout, while the other two coppers were blended the usual way to produce Export and 60/-.

The SS copper has a couple of extra ingredients: liquorice and black malt. And more “colour” which is presumably some sort of caramel. I’m not totally sure that the black malt went into the copper, but that’s definitely the suggestion, given the way the record is laid out. There were also far more hops than you would usually find in the third copper. A sure sign they were doing something different.

It’s not clear how the gyles were blended. The quantities fermented (278 barrels) add up to more than the volume out of the coppers (203 barrels). I assume water must have been added to make up the volumes.

It’s all very strange.

1957 Robert Younger SS
pale malt 5.00 lb 73.42%
black malt 0.50 lb 7.34%
flaked maize 1.00 lb 14.68%
No. 2 invert sugar 0.25 lb 3.67%
malt extract 0.06 lb 0.88%
caramel enough to hit the colour
liquorice 0.50 oz
Fuggles 120 min 1.25 oz
Goldings 30 min 1.25 oz
OG 1030
FG 1007
ABV 3.04
Apparent attenuation 76.67%
IBU 21
SRM 40
Mash at 151º F
Sparge at 170º F
Boil time 120 minutes
pitching temp 60º F
Yeast WLP028 Edinburgh Ale

 This recipe is from my wonderful book on Scottish brewing:



http://www.lulu.com/shop/ronald-pattinson/scotland-vol-2/paperback/product-23090497.html 



Friday, 16 July 2021

Dutch Pils in 1943

By the time 1943 rolled around, the situation was getting pretty dire. Even Pils, which was the strongest beer produced during the war, was well under 2% ABV.

Not sure what was going on with the Leeuw sample. Perhaps it was old stock. What was the point of drinking such watery beer? I’d prefer to get half the volume of beer, but at double the strength. Then you’d at least get a little of the good alcohol effect.

Let’s add a little context by looking at the strength of beer in the UK in 1943. In 1943, average OG hit its wartime nadir. But that was still 1034.34º,  which would have left average strength at around 3.5% ABV. More than double the average for Dutch Pils.

However, there were beers a good bit stronger than that average, as a large percentage of the beer sold in Britain was3% ABV Mild Ale Here’s the set of Ales from a randomly selected UK brewery:

Whitbread Ales in 1943
Date Beer Style OG FG ABV App. Atten-uation
21st Jul XX Mild 1028.3 1008.0 2.69 71.73%
22nd Jul IPA IPA 1031.4 1005.5 3.43 82.48%
28th Apr PA Pale Ale 1039.2 1008.5 4.06 78.32%
22nd Jul XXXX Strong Ale 1042.8 1013.0 3.94 69.63%
Source:
Whitbread brewing record held at the London Metropolitan Archives, document number LMA/4453/D/01/110.


I imagine Dutch drinkers would have ripped your arm off to get a beer of a heady 4% ABV.  

Dutch Pils in 1943
Date Brewer Town OG Plato FG Plato ABV App. Atten-uation Colour
18th Dec Amstel Amsterdam 3.77 0.96 1.41 74.83% 0.42
25th Jan Grolsch Groenlo 4.28 1.12 1.60 74.17% 0.6
25th Jan Amstel Amsterdam 3.76 0.87 1.46 77.13% 0.42
25th Jan Heineken Rotterdam 4.02 0.66 1.71 83.80% 0.55
25th Jan Bavaria Lieshout 4.13 1.14 1.51 72.73% 0.48
25th Jan Hengelo Hengelo 3.70 1.21 1.26 67.63% 0.48
16th Feb De Leeuw Valkenburg 8.81 2.57 3.26 71.55% 0.4
27th Jul Heineken Amsterdam 3.86 1.42 1.23 63.58% 0.58
27th Jul Heineken Rotterdam 4.03 1.19 1.44 70.81% 0.58
  Average   4.48 1.24 1.65 72.91% 0.50
Source:
Rapporten van laboratoriumonderzoeken naar producten van Heinekenbrouwerijen in binnen- en buitenland en naar producten van andere brouwerijen held at the Amsterdamse Stadsarchief, document number 834 - 1794.