Monday, 26 September 2022

Harvey hops in 1889

Inevitably, we’ve ended up at the hops Harvey employed. What’s slightly unusual is that they are all English. And mostly pretty local, Lewes being in Sussex and Kent in the neighbouring country to the East.

That’s slightly unusual. Most brewers used some foreign hops, simply because there were too few English hops to satisfy demand.

There’s nothing stupidly old. Most were either from the current season or the one before it. With only the Sussex hops being two seasons old

Harvey currently sources all its hops from Sussex. At least they did when I visited the brewery a couple of years ago. 

Harvey hops in 1889
Beer Style OG hop 1 hop 2 hop 3
X Mild 1058.2 East Kent 1887 East Kent 1888  
XXX Mild 1075.3 East Kent 1887 East Kent 1888  
PA Pale Ale 1066.5 Worcester 1888    
SB Stock Ale 1078.9 Kent 1888 East Kent 1887  
Stout Stout 1078.7 Sussex 1886 Kent 1887 East Kent 1888
Source:
Harvey brewing record held at the East Sussex Record Office, document number BBR 2/1/3.


Sunday, 25 September 2022

Regional Beer Styles ca. 1900 (part two)

This time we're going to look at how these different types of beer were brewed 

Starting with Mild.

"The brewer who wishes nowadays to succeed in his profession must certainly understand how to blend the materials employed and treat the brewing water, manipulating this for the mash-tun in such a way that by the correct method of fermentation and use of the right type of yeast, any class of beer desired may be turned out by him. This subject is too intricate to discuss fully in these pages, but I might say that for luscious mild ales, it is necessary to employ a large percentage of sugar in the copper, and well-cured malts in the mash-tun, in conjunction with a percentage of prepared rice or maize. For dry mild ales, it is usual to employ a fairly large percentage of glucose, also prepared grain, with fairly pale or lightly cured malts. The water used has, naturally, as I have already mentioned, a great deal to do with the palate-fulness, flavour and characters of the beers turned out."
"A Treatise of Practical Brewing and Malting" by Frank Thatcher, The Country Brewers' Gazette, 1905, pages 293 - 294.

For a Mild, then, you needed a shitload of sugar, some darker malts and an adjunct.. But the water was key to the character of the finished beer.

Next its the turn of Porter and Stout.

"The imitation of the London porters and stouts is not a difficult matter, considering that caramel and sugars which yield a luscious flavour are added to the copper. Then also, we have blends of black, crystal, amber and brown malts in addition to the ordinary pale or high-dried malts which are generally used; whereas for stouts produced in Ireland, it is usual to employ high-dried English and Irish malts blended with brown, amber, crystal and black or chocolate malts. In my former book on Brewing I dealt with this subject at great length, but, considering that operations in all breweries van so considerably, I do not now think it advisable to deal with the matter in extenso, but would add that in addition to the mash-tun materials employed, it is equally necessary to give sufficient attention to the blend of hops employed in the copper and cask, and as the type of yeast used, system of fermentation, and many other details affect the quality, flavour and condition of the finished beers produced, I think it somewhat inadvisable to give in these columns any percentages of materials, since they might be somewhat misleading."
"A Treatise of Practical Brewing and Malting" by Frank Thatcher, The Country Brewers' Gazette, 1905, page 294. 

He's right that London Black Beers had more complex malt bills than those brewed elsewhere. In particular, brown malt was a defining feature of London versions. Crystal and amber malts were more optional. With the latter mostly appearing in posh Stouts.

Saturday, 24 September 2022

Let's Brew - 1885 William Younger 160/-

And here we are, at the end of the Shilling Ales. It’s been a long journey, but hopefully an enjoyable one.

Top of the Shilling Ale tree was 160/-, at an impressive 1115º. Not that they brewed huge amounts of it. 40 barrels a couple of times a year. Though, they did brew two other beers over 1100º: 140/- and No. 1.  And another, No. 2, over 1090º: That’s quite a lot of very strong beers for one brewery

There’s not going to be much to say about the recipe. Well, not much that is new. As this was parti-gyled with the 140/- we’ve just seen.

The hops were the same combination of Kent, Californian, Bohemian and American.

Given that it was all racked into half hogsheads or quarter hogsheads, it looks like this was an exclusively bottled beer. And one which wasn’t aged.

1885 William Younger 160/-
pale malt 22.00 lb 88.89%
brown sugar 2.75 lb 11.11%
Cluster 150 min 5.50 oz
Fuggles 60 min 3.00 oz
Saaz 30 min 3.00 oz
OG 1115
FG 1050
ABV 8.60
Apparent attenuation 56.52%
IBU 122
SRM 15
Mash at 152º F
Sparge at 163º F
Boil time 150 minutes
pitching temp 56º F
Yeast WLP028 Edinburgh Ale

 

Friday, 23 September 2022

Harvey grists in 1889

Let’s have a look at the ingredients contained in these beers.

Unsurprisingly, all have a base of pale malt. Most made from English malt, but around 15% from Middle Eastern Smyrna barley.

Only the Stout has any other malt than the base. That was fairly typical. Sometimes a bit of crystal turns up in Mild Ales, other than that, it’s base malt all the way. The grist is more complicated than in many provincial Stouts, having a fair bit of crystal malt in addition to black.

Harvey’s sugar usage was quite varied, with four different sugars across their five beers. Pale Ale gets, as you would expect, No. 1 invert. X Ale receives No. 3 invert. While XXX and SB were treated to No. 3 invert. Not sure what the BK was which was employed in the Stout. Presumably something dark.

At between 15% and 24%, the sugar content is on the high side. Note that the expensive Pale Ale contained the most sugar. This was pretty common, as brewers wanted to keep the colour and body as light as possible. 

Harvey grists in 1889
Beer Style OG pale malt black malt crystal malt no. 1 sugar no. 2 sugar no. 3 sugar BK
X Mild 1058.2 84.56%       15.44%    
XXX Mild 1075.3 83.86%         16.14%  
PA Pale Ale 1066.5 75.90%     24.10%      
SB Stock Ale 1078.9 82.56%         17.44%  
Stout Stout 1078.7 65.48% 6.09% 12.18%       16.24%
Source:
Harvey brewing record held at the East Sussex Record Office, document number BBR 2/1/3.


Thursday, 22 September 2022

Regional Beer Styles ca. 1900

One of the frustrating aspects of old brewing manuals is how little they talk about specific beers. Other than when it's something very new. Like IPA.

Frank Thatcher's book is an exception. It has a couple of pages discussing the types of beer brewed in the different parts of the UK. Regionality was still very much a thing: Hes starts with the well-known brewing regions and the beers they brewed.

"Much might be written upon the important question of the blend of materials employed in the mash-tun and copper for the production of various classes of beers in the different brewing centres of the United Kingdom. Burton is noted for its pale and strong ales, London for mild ales and stouts, Edinburgh for the special type of Scotch ales of which pale ales form a large percentage of the output from the different breweries there. Other parts of Scotland also produce similar beers, particularly Alloa, etc. Then we have Dublin and Cork noted for Irish porter and stout, and I must not forget the well-known beers produced in the West of England, whereof Oakhill stout and the Anglo-Bavarian beers of Shepton Mallet are familiar examples."
"A Treatise of Practical Brewing and Malting" by Frank Thatcher, The Country Brewers' Gazette, 1905, page 293.

Burton was famous for Strong Ales long before the first Pale Ale was brewed there. 

London and Mild may have long lost their association, but it was once very strong. It was the capital's favourite for getting on for a century. 

Edinburgh was, by this point, as well, if not better known, for its Pale Ales. Their Scotch Ale was still quite a thing in some markets.

A bit more obvious is Cork and Dublin brewing Stout. Both still are.

Some more detail on the West Country stuff would be nice. Other than one Stout.

Most of the rest seems to refer to mild Ale.

"In districts where miners consume the beers produced, it is usual to aim at luscious palate-fulness, and a sweet type of mild ale. In other districts, dry beers are desired, and then we have the colour of the beers varying from a dark nut brown to a very pale amber. We also have stouts and porter produced with a large percentage of sugar, such as is usual to the London and Northampton stouts, while the Irish porters and stouts are produced, as a rule, from all malt and hops."
"A Treatise of Practical Brewing and Malting" by Frank Thatcher, The Country Brewers' Gazette, 1905, page 293. 

That seems to be saying that Milds were very diverse, some being sweet and others dry. While the colour varied from pale to dark.

From what I know, he's right in saying Irish Stout usually contained no sugar.

Wednesday, 21 September 2022

Let's Brew Wednesday - 1885 William Younger 140/-

I warned you this would be a long slog. We’re not even all the way through the Shilling Ales yet. William Younger really did brew a crazy number of different beers. More than any other brewery I’ve come across. And not just by a little bit. More than double the next most prolific brewery.

This was another parti-gyle, but not with the 120/- we’ve just seen. This one was with its bigger brother 160/-.

The same two elements – base malt and “DM” sugar – were used as in 120/-. The proportions are a bit different. With 140/- having around 50% more sugar.

The hopping rate was higher than 120/- at 8.5 lbs per quarter of malt compared to 6.25 lbs. Which has a pretty big impact on the bitterness: 116 IBU to 76 IBU. (Those are calculated, of course.)

As was usual with William Younger, there were a shitload of different hops. Kent from the 1884 harvest, Californian from 1884, Bohemian from 1885, American from 1885 and American from 1884. 

1885 William Younger 140/-
pale malt 19.25 lb 88.51%
brown sugar 2.50 lb 11.49%
Cluster 150 min 4.75 oz
Fuggles 60 min 2.50 oz
Saaz 30 min 2.50 oz
OG 1101
FG 1043
ABV 7.67
Apparent attenuation 57.43%
IBU 116
SRM 14
Mash at 152º F
Sparge at 163º F
Boil time 150 minutes
pitching temp 56º F
Yeast WLP028 Edinburgh Ale

Tuesday, 20 September 2022

Beanes' Patent Grist (part four)

Yet more on that enigmatic adjunct, Beanes’ Patent Grist. This time, in the form of an advertisement from Beanes themselves.

You can see what the producer claimed its useful properties.

"Advantages Obtainable by the employment of BEANES' PATENT GRIST.
(1)    Increased Extract.
(2)    Sound Beers of Brilliant and Persistent Condition. 

Purity.—Beanes’ Patent Grist is manufactured by a process which is a guarantee of freedom from any deleterious substance. We guarantee every consignment, and the Patent Grist is not only regularly analysed and tested in our own Laboratory, but other analysts are employed to regularly examine the material for us. The Patent Grist is manufactured from the finest selected rice, thoroughly kiln dried, and free from mould and unsound ferment germs. Unlike maize, it contains no appreciable amount of oil, and thus will not impart to Beers, when kept, any peculiar or objectionable flavour. Beers brewed with the Patent Grist are of better quality than those produced with maize, and improve by keeping.

Finished Beer.— Ales which are brewed with from 10 to 25 per cent, or more of Beanes’ Patent Grist are, even in the fermenting vessel just prior to racking, much cleaner than other Beers, while in cask they take the finings in a few hours, go “Star” brilliant, and retain their brilliancy. Many brewing firms who have been employing the Patent Grist for years, have not, during that time, had a complaint of their Pale Ales being cloudy and refusing to fine. These Beers will remain brilliant in the coldest weather, not becoming hazy like those produced with other materials less carefully manufactured. Beers brewed with not less than 10 per cent, of the Patent Grist (taken on total materials used) are not affected by heat or cold so far as brilliancy is concerned, provided, of course, the barley malts also employed are of medium quality. The Patent Grist contains a large proportion of “Dextrin,” the Beers do not “run down” in cask, the final gravity being almost permanent, while the condition produced remains persistent until the Beer is consumed, a tenacious head also being usual through the “Dextrin” present in the Ale. Sick Frets are usually prevented by the use of the Patent Grist, since the Beers do not contain an excess of changeable albuminous matter. If it is found at any time that Beers brewed with 10 per cent, of the Patent Grist do not remain brilliant in cold weather after fining, but develop a haze, it is due to hop resins or an excess of proteids in the Beer. In such case a good remedy is to increase the percentage of the Patent Grist employed until the excess of low type albuminous matter is sufficiently reduced when the difficulty will disappear, especially if the Beers are got into good condition before being fined.

Prices on Application.
E. BEANES & CO., Hackney Wick, London, N.E."
"A Treatise of Practical Brewing and Malting" by Frank Thatcher, The Country Brewers' Gazette, 1905, advertisement.

It's much the same as Frank Thatcher wrote. Boosting extract, aiding clarification and adding body. It sounds wonderful stuff.

Which has me wondering. If it's that wonderful, why haven't I found it in any other brewing records? I've looked through the records of dozens of breweries and I'm pretty sure Cairnes are the first where it's popped up.

Monday, 19 September 2022

Harvey beers in 1889

By late 19th-century standards, Harvey had quite a limited range of beers. Just five in total. A couple of Mild Ales, and one each of Pale Ale, Stock Ale and Stout.

The biggest surprise is the absence of any Running Bitter or Light Pale Ale. These were all the rage in the second half of the 19th century and were a pretty standard past of most breweries’ ranges.

Starting with the Milds, they both have a pretty decent gravity. Surprisingly strong for provincial beers. All the beers are pretty strong, for that matter. Averaging over 1070º. I’m not 100% certain that XXX was a Mild. It could also have been an Old Ale. However, given the rate of hopping, my guess would be Mild.

The hopping rate is a little lower than in London, where it was usually 6 – 8 lbs per quarter for X Ale. Not a huge difference, really.

Harvey Pale Ale looks like a classic Stock Pale Ale to me. With its OG in the mid-1060ºs and high level of hopping. As a Stock Ale, it would have been matured for around a year. Possibly even more. Which, obviously, would have reduced the FG considerably. My guess is that, when sold, the apparent attenuation would have been over 89%.

I’m not certain of what “SB” stands for. It could be “Stock Beer” or possibly “Strong Beer”. Not that it matters too much, as these labels were used pretty arbitrarily. It’s strong and it’s dark. What else do you need to know? Oh, it’s reasonably, but not excessively hopped.

SB isn’t hugely different from XXX. They are a similar strength and colour. The significant difference being in the hopping.

Finally, we come to the Stout. Which is a pretty decent strength, clocking in stronger than a London Single Stout. The hopping rate is lower than in London, where somewhere around 10 lbs per quarter 336 lbs)  of malt was typical. 

Harvey beers in 1889
Beer Style OG FG ABV App. Atten-uation lbs hops/ qtr hops lb/brl Pitch temp
X Mild 1058.2 1015.0 5.72 74.29% 5.68 1.46 58º F
XXX Mild 1075.3 1020.8 7.22 72.43% 6.66 2.39 57.75º F
PA Pale Ale 1066.5 1020.2 6.12 69.58% 12.90 3.96 58.25º F
SB Stock Ale 1078.9 1018.8 7.95 76.14% 9.02 3.21 58º F
Stout Stout 1078.7 1026.3 6.93 66.55% 6.65 2.43 58º F
Source
Harvey brewing record held at the East Sussex Record Office, document number BBR 2/1/3.


Sunday, 18 September 2022

Beanes’ Patent Grist (part three)

Back with Beanes’ Patent Grist again. This time, how to use it.

Because, unlike flaked grains, you  more than one way method of employment. Obviously, you could mix it up with the malt in the mash tun. Then there was another way.

We'll get to that later. First we'll learn a little more about its properties.

"Unlike flaked maize or rice, we have upon the market a material styled Beanes’ Patent Grist, which is a special preparation of rice made upon advantageous lines, and which, when it reaches the brewer, is a retorrefied product having all the starch in a condition ready to be acted upon by the diastase of the malt directly it is mixed with the same in the mash-tun. It yields an extract of from 100 to 115 lbs. per quarter of 3 cwts., and when boiled for some hours with naked steam, and then used as part of the mash liquor, it will yield even a larger extract. For all practical purposes, so far as extract is concerned, compared to barley malt, 2 cwt. of this Beanes’ Patent Grist equals one quarter of malt—that is, equals 3 cwts. of barley malt as regards extract yield."
"A Treatise of Practical Brewing and Malting" by Frank Thatcher, The Country Brewers' Gazette, 1905, pages 291 - 292.

That's a very high extract. The same as sugar of which 2 cwt was also equal to 2 cwt of malt. 

It also didn't leave a funny taste like nasty old maize:

"The process of manufacture is a guarantee of freedom from any deleterious substances, and, being manufactured from the finest selected rice, thoroughly kiln-dried, free from mould and unsound germs, containing a minimum amount of oil unlike maize (which often possesses a large amount), it does not impart to beers after storage that peculiar characteristic flavour which is so often noticeable in beers produced with a percentage of maize containing much oil. Then again, beers produced with this grist, even in cold weather, improve by storage, which is not so with those produced from maize."
"A Treatise of Practical Brewing and Malting" by Frank Thatcher, The Country Brewers' Gazette, 1905, page 292.

The high dextrin content was useful in preventing a beer drying out too much.

"When this grist is employed and boiled as already mentioned above, an improvement is generally noticeable in outcrops of pure yeast during fermentation owing to an alteration taking place in the albuminoids. Moreover, the method of manufacture of this grist is carried out in such a way that it contains a large proportion of dextrin; consequently, the beers do not run down in cask, the final attenuations being more permanent, and the condition remains more persistent, while owing to the finished beers possessing less unstable albuminous matter, they take the finings more rapidly and sick frets are less usual."
"A Treatise of Practical Brewing and Malting" by Frank Thatcher, The Country Brewers' Gazette, 1905, page 292.

Finally, here's the other way of using Beanes’ Patent Grist

It is employed in the usual way by being carefully mixed with the malt as it enters the grist hopper; perfect admixture is absolutely necessary for success, or it may be boiled two hours before use in a decoction vessel, then allowed to cool and be used as ordinary mashing liquor, since it entirely dissolves when treated in this way. Some employ it thus by boiling it (overnight) in a vessel with naked steam for several hours, employing three-and-a-half barrels of liquor per each 3 cwts. of grist. This decoction vessel or copper is connected to the Steel’s masher or the liquor pipe entering the masher, so that part liquor and part grist solution enters the masher conjointly, but those who wish to avoid this trouble may obtain excellent results by using it in the same way as barley malt, provided it is most efficiently mixed with the grist before it enters the mash-tun; otherwise the diastase is unable to convert the material into saccharine matter efficiently. For the production of all classes of beers, it is a material which has been known to brewers for very many years, and has been successfully used in some of our very largest breweries for a great number of years."
"A Treatise of Practical Brewing and Malting" by Frank Thatcher, The Country Brewers' Gazette, 1905, pages 292 - 293. 

I'm a bit confused as to how it could completely dissolve. Surely there would still be stuff in the which wasn't soluble. Was it really pretty much all dextrin?

Saturday, 17 September 2022

Let's Brew - 1885 William Younger 120/-

Ditto with 120/- - there’s no modern beer bearing the name. Unlike the rest of the old-fashioned Shilling Ales, 120/- did make it through WW I. Not that it lasted much longer, being dropped sometime in the 1920s.

This example was parti-gyled with 140/-, though not the one which follows. Younger wasn’t a huge fan of parti-gyling, but did do it sometimes, especially with stronger Shilling Ales.

There’s nothing very complicated about the grist. Just base malt and sugar. That is one ingredient more than the weaker Shilling Ales. Though there are three types of base malt. One made for Scottish barley, one from Hungarian and one from Smyrna. Which, if you’ve been paying attention, was pretty typical in the late 19th century.

I’ve no real idea what the sugar is. I think it’s described as “DM”. Demerara, perhaps? That’s what I’ve gone with, anyway.

No fewer than five types of hops were employed, most of them foreign. Kent from the 1884 season, Californian from 1884, Wurtemburg from 1884, Spalt from 1884 and American from 1884.

With a large percentage of the beer going into hogsheads or half hogsheads, I suspect that this was principally a bottled beer.

1885 William Younger 120/-
pale malt 17.50 lb 92.11%
brown sugar 1.50 lb 7.89%
Cluster 90 min 2.75 oz
Spalt 60 min 1.75 oz
Fuggles 30 min 1.75 oz
OG 1087
FG 1034
ABV 7.01
Apparent attenuation 60.92%
IBU 76
SRM 11
Mash at 154º F
Sparge at 163º F
Boil time 120 minutes
pitching temp 55º F
Yeast WLP028 Edinburgh Ale


 

Friday, 16 September 2022

Cairnes hops in 1914

Moving on to the hops employed by Cairnes, we can see that there were an awful lot from the USA, specifically Oregon. In most beers, it was 50% Oregon and 50% English. The exception being Single Stout which was 100% Oregon.

I’m sort of assuming the non-Oregon hops were English. They are listed by a grower or dealer’s name which is obviously English. As there were pretty much no hops grown in Ireland, I think we can rule out them being local.

The majority of the hops were from the most recent season. With only Single Stout having older hops. Even then, they were only yearlings. I’ve come across English brewers who used much older hops in general, a majority being more than a year old.

Cairnes hops in 1914
Beer Style OG hop 1 hop 2 hop 3
2d Ale Mild 1038 Oregon 1913 English 1913  
Mild Ale Mild 1062 Oregon 1913 English 1913  
Bitter Ale Pale Ale 1050 Oregon 1913 English 1913  
SS Stout 1050 Oregon 1913 Oregon no date Oregon 1912
DS Stout 1067 Oregon 1913 English 1913  
Source:
Cairnes brewing record held at the Guinness archives.

Thursday, 15 September 2022

Beanes' Patent Grist (part two)

Thanks very much to those who commented on my last post. You saved me a good bit of research time with your links to various books. 

I'd already found a couple of references in "The report of the departmental committee on beer materials". But they were too vague, only implying it was prepared from some type of grain.

Frank Thatcher's book was the suggestion that answered pretty much all my questions. It's a book I already had, both physically and digitally. A bit embarrassing, really.  I've been using Thatcher as a source in my current book project. Specifically the part on beer ingredients. In my defence, I haven't got to adjuncts yet.

Beanes' Patent Grist is mentioned many times. There are even descriptions of how it was produced and how it was used.

"In the previous chapter on malting I have thoroughly explained the manufacture of malt and what a good sample of malt should resemble. It will now be necessary to define the other materials employed by brewers. These consist of amber, chocolate or brown , crystal and black malts, hops, various types of sugar such as invert, glucose, dextrin-maltose, and other types of such sugars including caramelized malt extract, maltodextrins, etc .; also raw cane sugar, caramels — those suitable for colouring purposes only, and those which possess a characteristic flavour for giving black beers features entirely of their own. We have also employed in convertors, raw grain , such as barley, oats , rice, maize, rye, wheat and sago ; and specially prepared grain , which includes flaked maize and rice, retorrefied rice, such as Beanes' Patent Grist, retorrefied barley and other forms of prepared grain."
"A Treatise of Practical Brewing and Malting" by Frank Thatcher, The Country Brewers' Gazette, 1905, page 226.

That's specific enough: retorrefied rice. But what the hell is that? We'll get to that later. First we'll look at what the point in using it was.

""Beanes' Patent Grist” is prepared from rice by a special process of the manufacturers. It imparts to the finished beers a high percentage of dextrin, so that the palate thinness given to beers by flaked rice is entirely avoided, and beers brewed from this patent grist improve in brilliancy and condition the longer they are stored, while their flavour is clean and entirely satisfactory. It yields a high extract and does not produce the defects in beers which are observable in those brewed from other preparations of rice or maize. For the production of pale ales and beers which are required to remain sound during hot weather, this material is indeed an excellent one, as it is already practically converted when the brewer receives it."
"A Treatise of Practical Brewing and Malting" by Frank Thatcher, The Country Brewers' Gazette, 1905, pages 260 - 261. 


Right. It was an improved version of flaked rice. One which didn't have its disadvantages and had a few other useful qualities. The high dextrin content would explain why it didn't thin out the body.

Odd that it's use is particularly handy in Pale Ales and in producing clear beers. When you see Cairnes' use of the material: only in there Stouts. Where clarity is not such a big deal.

Here's how it was made, for the more technically minded amongst you.

"Beanes’ Patent Grist is manufactured in the following way;— The grain is steeped in a solution of acid at a certain strength, and after it has absorbed as much of the acid solution as desired, it is washed with water to remove any excessive amount of acidity until the water coming away from the grain becomes neutral to litmus paper. Then the grain is dried on a kiln in a suitable manner, and the temperature raised from 280° to 310º until the starch in the grain has been changed to what is required, the grain being then more or less converted into dextrin. By this unique method of treatment one of the most excellent brewing materials that can be obtained is manufactured. The process appears at first sight a very simple one, but many who have tried to imitate it have failed to produce the exact article with regard to quality as supplied by the original manufacturers."
"A Treatise of Practical Brewing and Malting" by Frank Thatcher, The Country Brewers' Gazette, 1905, page 516.

 Now I know what Beanes' Patent Grist was. My problem is what do I use to replace it? Flaked rice, from the texts above, wouldn't produce the same result.

If you look in the comments, fellow beer historian Peter Symons suggests brown rice syrup.

 

Wednesday, 14 September 2022

Let's Brew Wednesday - 1889 Harveys Stout

Everyone brewed a Stout in the late 19th century and Harveys was no exception. Porter might have been slowly disappearing, but Stout was still going strong.

And this is a proper Stout, not a Porter masquerading as such. Why do I say that? Because of the gravity. At 1079º, it’s just about getting into Double Stout territory.

There’s a bit more to the grist than many provincial Stouts, which were mostly just pale malt and black malt. Here, there’s also a quantity of crystal malt. But no brown malt, as was normal in London. About 16% of the base malt was made from Smyrna, i.e. Middle Eastern, barley.

The sugar is described as Johnson BK. Guessing that BK stands for “Black”, I’d usually interpret it as No. 4 invert. Except that would leave the colour at over 60 SRM, which seems way too dark. Even with No. 3 invert, it ends up at high end of the expected colour for Stout.

All English hops: Sussex from the 1886 harvest, Kent from 1887 and East Kent from 1888.

At the end of the fermentation details, it says: “Run into Puns”. That is, racked into large casks, presumably for ageing. I’d guess at a minimum of six months secondary conditioning, probably 12 months or more. 

1889 Harveys Stout
pale malt 10.50 lb 63.64%
black malt 1.00 lb 6.06%
crystal malt 60 L 2.00 lb 12.12%
No. 3 invert sugar 3.00 lb 18.18%
Fuggles 120 mins 1.50 oz
Goldings 60 mins 1.50 oz
Goldings 30 mins 1.50 oz
Goldings dry hops 1.00 oz
OG 1079
FG 1026
ABV 7.01
Apparent attenuation 67.09%
IBU 49
SRM 41
Mash at 150º F
Sparge at 160º F
Boil time 150 minutes
pitching temp 58º F
Yeast Wyeast 1099 Whitbread Ale


Tuesday, 13 September 2022

Cairnes grists in 1914

Cairnes grists have become simpler. Whereas in 1898 there were six different ingredients, now there are just four.
    
The biggest change is the introduction of an adjunct in the form of flaked maize. In 1914 only malt and sugar were used. Other than B.P.G., which, rather than the sugar I first thought, is some sort of preparation of unmalted grain. Exactly what sort of preparation and which type of grain it was made from isn’t clear.

The three sugars of 1898 – No. 2 and No. 3 invert, and caramel – have been slimmed down to just one: glucose. It’s not specified in which form the glucose was. In a couple of the beers – 2d Ale and Bitter Ale – the sugar content is around 20%. That’s very high, even for England. And in Ireland, where little sugar was used, it’s extremely high.

The percentage of malt has fallen from between 80% and 90% to between 65% and 75%. The introduction of flaked maize is the biggest reason for the decline in the malt content. As before, the base malt was made from a combination of Middle Eastern and UK barley. 

Cairnes grists in 1914
Beer Style OG pale malt black malt flaked maize glucose
2d Ale Mild 1038 65.22%   14.49% 20.29%
Mild Ale Mild 1062 75.90%   14.46% 9.64%
Bitter Ale Pale Ale 1050 70.59%   9.80% 19.61%
SS Stout 1050 70.03% 7.74% 13.34% 8.89%
DS Stout 1067 66.39% 6.21% 18.97% 8.43%
Source:
Cairnes brewing record held at the Guinness archives.


Monday, 12 September 2022

Beane’s Patent Grist

In the 1898 Cairnes grists I published a couple of weeks back contained a mystery ingredient: B.P.G. 

From it's placement in the brewing record, I assumed it was a type of sugar, guessing that the G stood for glucose. How wrong I was.

Someone helpfully posted a link to the 1909 Brewer's Journal with a reference to B.P.G. Calling it "Beane’s Patent Gist" I realised the last word was misspelt, because it vaguely rang a bell. So I started digging around a bit. It soon became clear that it wasn't a type of sugar.

So, what was it?

I found this mention of in the newspaper archive:

"PURE BEER.
The proceedings of the departmental committee appointed by the Treasury to consider the question of beer materials, so far as they have gone, have just been made known. At the first day’s inquiry, the Earl of Pembroke and Montgomery presiding, Mr. John Steele, Chief Inspector of Inland Revenue and Excise, was examined. He stated that his principal work was to advise the Board of Inland Revenue with regard to regulations in connection with the beer duty. Each brewer had to take out a yearly licence to brew, at a cdst of one sovereign. In brewing 42 lb. weight of malt or corn of any description and 28 lb. of sugar were deemed the equivalents of a bushel of malt, and a brewer was expected to produce eighteen gallons of beer at a gravity of 55 deg. from each bushel. The bushel might be grain or it might be sugar ; 421b. of the one or 28 lb. of the other was fixed by law so as to have the charge upon the worts instead of the materials. It was difficult for them to say that the use of a certain material was a practice of adulteration if the brewer obeyed the proper regulations in using it. In reply to questions, the witness said that the brewer had full liberty to use any kind of saccharine material — having the benefit of what was called the "free mash tun." No action would be taken against the use of hop substitutes that were not injurious to health. The Board would not interfere with the use of quassia, but it would with the use of cocculus indicus, because the latter was poisonous. It was used in beer many years ago. The materials used in brewing included malt, gelatinized rice, flaked rice, maize flour, torrefied malt, malt flour, Dutton's malt flour, Beane’s patent grist, patent rice malt, gelatinized maize, desiccated rice, maizone, cerealine, rizine, patent flaked maize, rice shells, and Sheppherd’s corn malt. Besides these ingredients there were black malt sugar, dextrinous caramel, glucosine caramel, caramelized dextro-maltose, viscosiline, liquorice, malto-dextrine, ground sago, and varieties of sugars glucoses, and saccharums under fancy trade names. The Government officers had power to enter public-houses and take samples. There was no restriction as to the quantity of salt put into beer."
St James's Gazette - Thursday 22 October 1896, page 15.

Note that it's listed along with various types of unmalted grains. OK, Probably some sort of prepared grain. But which grain?

Stopes also list it along with a variety of adjuncts:

"Other malts are now known to commerce. It is extremely difficult to procure information conceming the manufacture and nature of some of them, and that they are classed here with malt at all will doubtless be objected to by some.

Of these mention may be made of short-malt germless maize, short-malt rice, germless-maize, Beane’s patent grist, granulated grain, zealine, cerealine, grits, hominy, &c."
"Malt and Malting" by Stopes, F, W, Lyon, London, 1885, page 167.

Unfortunately, he gives no further details as to its composition. I need to dig further.