Saturday 30 June 2018

Let's Brew - 1959 Watneys Dairy Maid Sweet Stout

What typifies the 1950s more than a piss-weak, ridiculously sweet Stout? This beer certainly fits that bill.

I’m lucky to have this brewing. For a start, I didn’t collect it myself. And it doesn’t come from Watneys themselves. Well, not directly. Because it’s in a brewing book of Ushers of Trowbridge. A brewery Watneys had purchased and which made some of their beers.

Once again, I’m thankful for having some Whitbread Gravity Book analyses. Because they tell me that the OG and FG were quite different from those in the brewing record. The OG is 3 points higher and the FG 6.5 points. Which doesn’t make a lot of sense.

Candy primings were added at the end of primary fermentation. But, assuming the OG of the primings is 1150º, they add 7 gravity points, according to my calculations. What’s going on? Well, my guess is that all the other shit they mixed in at racking time is bringing down the OG. 667 barrels were brewed and a further 106 barrels of various types of ullage blended in. That’s around 14% of the total.

I’m guessing that the candy sugar raised the effective OG by six or seven points and the ullage brought it down by four. Watneys beers are so much fun. Not quite sure how you would replicate that on a homebrew scale.

Based on the name, you’d assume there was lactose in this beer. But there doesn’t seem to be. I can’t see any in the recipe and not of the Gravity Book analyses mention its presence. As owners of the biggest Milk Stout brand, Whitbread took a particular interest in lactose in Stout.

The recipe contains just one coloured malt, black malt. Though that’s in quite a large amount. Then lots of sugar. The No. 3 invert is my substitution for CDM (Caramelised Dextro-Maltose). There’s just one type of hops, described simply as “Kent”. They were from the 1958 crop.

1959 Watneys Dairy Maid Sweet Stout
mild malt 4.75 lb 65.11%
black malt 0.67 lb 9.18%
flaked maize 0.25 lb 3.43%
malt extract 0.125 lb 1.71%
No. 4 invert sugar 0.67 lb 9.18%
cane sugar 0.33 lb 4.52%
candy sugar 0.50 lb 6.85%
ginger pinch
Fuggles 45 mins 0.75 oz
Fuggles 30 mins 0.50 oz
OG 1034
FG 1012
ABV 2.91
Apparent attenuation 64.71%
IBU 14
SRM 39
Mash at 154º F
Sparge at 170º F
Boil time 45 minutes
pitching temp 60º F
Yeast WLP023 Burton Ale

Friday 29 June 2018

New book coming along nicely

Austerity! my hillarious romp through postwar brewing, is coming along nicely. I should finish the recipes this weekend. Just tidying up the last bits and bobs.

There are some great recipes. 173 at the moment. Though that will increase a bit. I expect to finish just shy of 200 recipes. From 20 different breweriesAnd all new. Just about. There's one that appered in Let's Brew! Adnams Tally Ho! I only have one record of that for the period 1945 - 1965. Some recipes have appeared on the blog, but the majority haven't.

I've taken a slightly different approach to the recipes this time. I've grouped them by brewery rather than style. And mostly I've included recipes for all a brewery's beers. To give you an idea of what would be on sale in their pubs at any given date.

The plan is to have Austerity! released before the end of July.

While you're waiting for that, you could invest in one of my other excellent books. Also stuffed with recipes.



http://www.lulu.com/shop/ronald-pattinson/lets-brew/paperback/product-23289812.html

And the best book ever written about Scottish beer. Containing an insane number of recipes - around 370.


http://www.lulu.com/shop/ronald-pattinson/scotland-vol-2/paperback/product-23090497.html 

Substitutes in German brewing (part two)

More on the history of the Reinheitsgebot and the rules of malt substitutes during the early years of the German Empire.

It's quite a surprise to me to discover just how many restrictions there were in North Germany. I thought they's had pretty much a free hand. Not so.

III—REPORT BY DR. DOEMENS.
(Translated from German.)
1.
The following questions were submitted to me by Dr. Schidrowitz, and I have hereinafter answered them to the best of my knowledge and belief :—

1. What are the admixtures to beer that are prohibited—

(a) in Bavaria, and
(b) within the districts under the control of the North German Brewing Tax Union (Norddeutsche Braueteuer gemeinschaft) ?

In the year 1516 the Bavarian civil and police authorities issued a regulation prohibiting the employment of any materials other than barley, hops, and water in the manufacture of beer, both in Upper and Lower Bavaria, while at Nuremberg an order to the same effect had been made as early as the year 1200.

A police regulation of the year 1616 reiterates the prohibition relating to the admixture of foreign substances to beer in regard to Upper and Lower Bavaria.

Under an enactment which was made in 1806 for Upper and Lower Bavaria only, but was extended in the ensuing year to the remaining parts of the kingdom, excise dues were to be charged on beer not, as before, in proportion to the quantity of beer produced, but according to the amount of malt employed in its manufacture. Of substitutes (for malt or hops) this particular order says nothing, inasmuch as prior decrees dealing with that point were then in force, and are so even yet, having never been repealed.

The fact that the employment of substitutes was at no time allowed in Bavaria is borne out by the concluding sentence of the Bavarian Parliament (Landtag) on the 10th of November, 1891, which runs as follows:—

“The use of any substances other than, or any substitutes for, barley, malt, and hops in the preparation of brown beer, continues prohibited."

What is here meant by “brown beer” is low-fermented (as distinguished from high-fermented wheat beer, in the preparation of which the use of wheat malt, together with the ordinary barley malt, was permitted).

Article 7 of the Bavarian Malt Law of the 16th of May, 1868, which was amended in 1889, and is now in operation in its new form, provides:—

"That no substances of any description whatsoever shall, in the manufacture of beer, be added to, or substituted for malt (roasted or air-dried), and no unmalted cereals shall be used either by themselves or in conjunction with malt;”

Article 71 of the same law enacts—

“That whoever contravenes the restrictions herein set forth shall be liable to a fine of from hundred and eighty to five hundred and forty marks."

Now in view of existing precedents supplied by the decisions of the Courts, the construction to be placed upon Article 7 is that the law does not merely prohibit the use of malt substitutes proper, but that it makes the admixture to beer of any substances, whatever their nature, a punishable offence."
"The Brewers' Journal, 1898", page 243. 
No surprise that brewing with anything but malt and hops was an offence in Bavaria.

This next list of substances banned everywhere in Germany is interesting.
"Precedent, as established by decisions of the highest tribunals, shows that penalties have been inflicted for additions of salicylic acid, liquorice, caramel, and saccharin; also for making use of liquid carbonic acid in the manufacture of what is known as “champagne beer; "while for clarifying purposes isinglass shavings and other "finings” that will not mix with the beer, but the action of which is purely mechanical, are alone tolerated."
"The Brewers' Journal, 1898", page 243.
I'm very surprised to see caramel on that list. I'd thought that was allowed outside Bavaria. I knew saccharin had been forbidden. Which is really odd, because it the 20th century it was llowed in some types of low-gravity, sweet beers. Yet finings were OK, but not CO2. It all seems a bit random. Though I guess that's true today, where all sorts of things used in beer manufacture that don't end up in the finished beer are allowed.

"In the district under the control of the North German Brewing Tax Union the question of the employment of substitutes is settled by the provisions of the Imperial Code (which of course applies to Bavaria as well) relative to the manufacture and sale of food stimulants and articles of daily consumption; for section 10 of that law, dated May 10th 1897, says :—

"A term of imprisonment not exceeding six months and a fine not exceeding one thousand five hundred marks or either of these penalties, are incurred by—

“(1) an person who for purposes of deception in the exercise of commerce and trade imitates or adulteratcs food or stimulants ;

“(2) any person who with guilty knowledge and while concealing the fact sells or puts up for sale under a name designed to deceive or milead any food or stimulant that is deteriorated, imitated, or adulterated."

Under this section of the law the addition of saccharin in substitution for part of the amount of malt required for the production of beer of standard quality was held to be “beer adulteration,” and punished as such by judgment of the Imperial Court under date of March 2nd, 1893, and so was the addition to beer of other than pure grape sugar, by a judgment of the same Court dated March 4th, 1884.

Again, the employment of pure sugar and other malt substitutes is punishable where the beer is given a name such as “Bavarian (or Lager) Beer,” which by implication conveys the idea that no substitutes whatever have been used.
(Judgment of Imperial Court dated December 18th, 1882.)
"The Brewers' Journal, 1898", page 243.
Grape sugar is glucose, by the way.

Interesting that the rules were stricter if you mentioned Bavaria or Lager. Like I said before, all a bit weirdly random.

Thursday 28 June 2018

Pre-Christmas trip to London

There are certain trips I'm in the habit of making every year. Berlin in August for the Biermeile and London at the beginning of December, mostly for the beer hacks' dinner. Though it's also handy for some pre-Christmas shopping.

Not that it's very glamourous shopping. Meat, salt & vinegar crisps and tea. That's the main stuff we pick up when in the UK. All the essentials for an Englishman living abroad. Not that the crisps are for me. They're for the kids. Go crazy for them, they do.

We've usually enough time to visit a museum or two as well. Still plenty of those to get around. London has a stack of museums. There are still loads I've yet to visit. Just need to keep plugging away. Come to think of it, despite numerous visits, I probably haven't been around more than half the British Museum.

Pre-Christmas London trip

Me and Dolores have got into the habit of visiting London in early December. For a couple of reasons: the hacks’ dinner, smooching around museums. And some light shopping.

Not that Dolores is going to the dinner this year. Non-member tickets are way too pricey: over a hundred quid. But she’s still happy to join me on the trip to London for all the other good stuff. Which includes drinking multiple pints of London Pride. Dolores is a big fan of Pride. Though only on cask.

Our flight is in the early afternoon, meaning I can leave the packing until the morning. Lazy git that I am. The kids keep asking when we’re leaving. Keen to have the place to themselves, they are. Though surely Andrew should be at his own flat?

We leave them some money for essentials. Though it’ll likely mostly be spent on gin and beer. Or vodka and beer. Or vodka, gin and beer. One of those combinations. With his job and student loan, Andrew should really be paying for his own booze. We’re way too soft on him.

We use the 2 tram and 69 bus route to Schiphol. Andrew’s preferred way of getting from our place to the airport. The big advantage: minimal walking. The numerous other routes all involve more walking or buggering about.

We’re at the airport with plenty of time to spare. You never know how long security is going to take. And I hate rushing at airports. Preferring to sit rather than rush. Especially when I’m leaving from pier D, as today. That’s where the Murphy’s Pub is. The airport pub I’ve visited so often that I recognise the staff.

I can almost taste the Murphy’s Stout and Jamesons as we approach. Then, to my despair, see that it’s closed for renovations. Bummer. A sign on the door suggest the cafeteria opposite as an alternative. Bastards. Don’t taunt me.

“I’ll get a couple of cans in the shop.” I suggest.

Except the Vizzit doesn’t sell beer. Other than 2 litre flip tops of Grolsch. Not very easy to drink out of one of them. I plump for red wine instead. One small bottle is 4 euros. Two cost just a euro more. Decision made.

“Why have you bought two bottles, Ronald?” I explain the pricing system. “That’s OK then, though I don’t understand why you need to drink wine before we get on the plane.”

“You’re not English, that’s why you don’t understand.”

It’s still shite. I look mournfully over at the closed pub, where at least there are signs of building activity, and weep bitter tears onto my copy of Private Eye.

I desultorily neck the wine and nash the sarnie I’ve brought with me. While Dolores has a go on a massage machine. Which is decent value for 2 euros.

The flight is uneventful and before we know it we’re topping up our oyster cards then trundling slowly – and shakily – along in a DLR train.

“Why are these trains so slow and rickety?” Dolores asks.

“Because the Tories built the DLR on the cheap.”

Frustratingly City Airport, despite being pretty close to central London, the DLR connects poorly with the tube, as well as being maddeningly slow. We plump to change at Canning Town, take the Jubilee line then change to the Piccadilly line at Green Park. None of the several alternative routes is perfect. And some downright crap (I’m looking at you Tower Hill.).

I remember after arriving at Green Park what the downside of this route is: a long tunnel walk to get to the Piccadilly line platforms. Taking the tube can entail surprising amounts of walking. I’ve forgotten about that since moving away from the city.

On the way to our hotel from Russell Square tube station, I say: “Can I just nip into this shop?”

“Why?”

“To get some beer for the hotel.” I’m on holiday. Beer is my right.

We usually stay in the Tavistock Hotel. When we try to check in, they can’t find our booking.

“Do you have a confirmation?”

Of course we do. After we hand it over, they politely point out that it’s for a different hotel. Somehow I’ve managed to accidentally book the Imperial hotel just down the road. It does belong to the same group.

I’m kicking myself. Because I think it’s the monster hotel next door, where I’ve stayed once before. I wasn’t keen.

Thankfully I’m wrong. We’re booked into the Imperial Hotel.

“Do you want a room overlooking the square or the courtyard?”

“The square, please.”

A good choice on our part. From our 8th floor room, we’ve not only a view of the Russell Square, but also the Senate House Library, Post Office tower and British Museum.


We haven’t lunched and there are a few hours before I need to leave for the Hacks’ do. What to do?

“Do you fancy a pint and something to eat?” I ask.

“OK, where do you want to go? The pub by the tube station?”

Sounds fair enough to me.

It’s called the Friend at Hand. We’ve been in there plenty of times before. The pub is a fairly standard London affair, but the beer is normally pretty decent. I spot something new as we approach: a Greene King sign. Isn’t this a Taylor Walker pub?*

Obviously there’s a proper IPA on draught.

“What do you want to drink, Dolores?”

“A nice Bitter.”

“What about the IPA?”

“No, you know I don’t like that grapefruit crap.”

“This isn’t like other IPAs. Honest.”

Dolores doesn’t look very convinced, even though we had the exact same conversation last year. She’s happy enough after tasting it. I know her taste in beer well.

We share a portion of fish and chips, a bargain at just 15 quid.

“That’s only £7.50 each.” I reassure Dolores. Her look tells me still doesn’t reckon it’s a bargain.

At least they’ve gone totally over the top with the Christmas decorations. The guild dinner is usually a week or so later. “Will they have all the decorations up?” Dolores asked when we were planning the trip in August. She likes the Christmassy atmosphere. I’ll admit that it does cheer up the murky weather.

“Of course they will. Some pubs have them up already.”

Back at the hotel, I posh myself up for the evening. Which doesn’t take long. It’s the second time I’ve worn my nice jacket this year, last time being at Carlsberg. What a jetsetter I am.

Travelling to the do is easy enough, it being just a few stops away on the Piccadilly line. I get there near dead on six, when the drinks reception starts. I wouldn’t want to miss out on any boozing. Especially as I’ve already paid for it. Martyn Cornell arrives at exactly the same time. His thinking doubtless also exactly the same as mine.


There are disappointingly few beer stands. Fewer and fewer every year. I immediately hunt out the strongest choices, pisshead that I am. Then spot Peter Hayden in his usual natty tweed getup. What is he up to now he no longer has the Florence brewpub? A mobile canning thing. How modern is that?

Asking every professional brewer I meet about their opinion of sludgy beer, I get the same response as always. Even people who brew it think it’s bollocks.


I chat with a variety of various, mostly aged, hacks. I don’t really know many of the younger ones. Other than Mark Dredge, who’s sitting on the same table. As is Guy Thornton. I see him here every year. Though we both live in Holland.

I wonder what Dolores would make of the unfiltered London Pride on offer? I suspect she wouldn’t be a fan. She’s 100% committed to the cask version. In good condition. I really don’t understand where she gets such fussiness from.

Mark has at least made an effort this time, wearing a jacket and tie. Unlike at the last outing of my vaguely posh clothes in Copenhagen. When he was a right scruffy git at the formal dinner.


The food is much better than last year, the main course of duck being particularly tasty.

I don’t stay too late. Dolores was so worried about me drinking too much and not being able to find my way back that she put a note with the hotel’s address into my pocket. So determined am I to prove her wrong, I leave pretty sober.

She’s asleep when I get back. As I soon am.


* I seem to have missed Greene King buying Spirit (owner of the Taylor Walker brand).



Friend at Hand
2 - 4 Herbrand Street,
Bloomsbury,
London WC1N 1HX.
Tel: +44 20 7837 5524
https://www.greeneking-pubs.co.uk/pubs/greater-london/friend-at-hand



Museum and Tavern

We don’t rise that early. Just in time to wash and get downstairs before breakfast is finished.

It’s very much the same as at the Tavistock. Except slightly less anarchic, they have poached eggs and you have to make your own toast.

I pile my plate high with bacon and eggs. And a fried tomato for form’s sake. They’re better at coming round with tea here, though it’s still a bit on the watery side.

First stop is the British Museum, just a short walk away. Being relatively early, it isn’t totally mobbed. Though parties of perpetual motion schoolkids in uniform swirl about, teachers trailing behind them.

“I wouldn’t fancy being responsible for a group of 10-year olds in central London.” I remark to Dolores.

“Me neither. But they look sweet in their uniforms.”

“It’s alright for you. You weren’t forced to wear one. Well, there was the FDJ* one. But you didn’t need to wear that all day, every day.”

We’re here to see an exhibition of communist coins and banknotes. Room 69B we’re after, but we’re having trouble finding it. Room 69, no problem, but not 69B. To get to room 69 we have to pass through a room displaying coins of various ages. It’s pretty fascinating so we linger awhile.

“I never realised how they made coins.” Dolores says after looking a particularly illuminating exhibit. I’m hypnotised by a hoard of Roman gold coins found in Britain. So shiny and crisp, they look like they were minted yesterday. Way higher in quality than most of the ancient coins, many of which are irregular in shape and rather crude.

After much wandering around, we discover the tiny entrance to room 69B. Which is also pretty small. It’s not the largest exhibition ever. I can see why it’s free.


The exhibition poster features a Czechoslovakian 100 crown note. Ah, I remember it well. Had plenty of those in my back sky back in the day. I also used miniaturised versions as the beer tokens for my 40th birthday party in Café Belgique.

“Have you noticed how they loved workers and peasants gazing confidently into the future?” I ask Dolores.

“Yes, and tractors, factories and Karl Marx. Don’t forget those.”

She knows all about communist money, having grown up using it. They’ve plenty of examples of DDR money, including the coins.


“It’s a shame you can’t hold them to feel how lightweight they are.” I say. Made from aluminium, they felt- and sounded - like toy money. A great way to make people think their money is worthless.

It’s really weird seeing objects I’ve possessed on display in the British Museum. I feel like I’ve been part of history, somehow. If only in a passive way.

When we’re done, the coin room is much more crowded. I’m glad we came early. Time to offbuggeren.


As we leave, I take a photo of the people photographing the museum. Well, really the building behind them. Which I guess barely ever is deemed worthy of a snap. I thought I’d even up the score a little.


We flop through the doors of the Museum Tavern just before twelve. When I suggested a visit during our pre-planning Dolores did say “I don’t want to go there when it’s crowded and everyone is eating.”


Morning is the best bet then. It’s empty, save for the staff, when we arrive. Perfect.

“What do you want, Dolores? A cider?”

“No, that’s too strong for this early.” Perhaps she’s remembering last year, when she downed 5 pints of cider in the afternoon, not realising how strong it was. It’s the most pissed I’ve seen her in years. “A nice Bitter.”

“What about Wimbledon XXK. That should be nice. Given the name, it must be one of Derek Prentice’s beers.”

“OK.”

No discussion about what I’ll be drinking: Old Puke. That’s the reason I came here. It’s always in excellent nick.


After noon, a steady dribble-drabble of diners drift in, cold air clinging to their coats. A varied bunch: a couple in theirs sixties, a mother with two teenage boys, a group of middle-aged female friends.

Dolores is happy with her XK. I’m ecstatic about my Old Peculier, which is slipping down like greased cream. Damn that’s a fine pint. Best get another.

I’m not just here because I like the beer and it’s a handy location. I like the Museum Tavern as a pub. No idea why exactly. It just has a good atmosphere. And it’s obviously well run.

After three pints, we tearfully drag ourselves away, out into the effing cold. Being quite breezy, it feels colder than it is. But not close to bollock-freezing levels.

“Aren’t you going to wear your scarf?” Dolores has two. And gloves. “I know your answer: ‘No, because I’m English.’”

Somehow I’ve managed to persuade Dolores that our next destination should be another pub: the Harp. (Maybe promising her a walk through theatre land swung it.) I want to sup the Fullers London Porter that I know they have on at the moment. And that there’s London Pride for Dolores. I’m not totally selfish.


We walk down Shaftsbury Ave which, as I promised is packed with theatres. Rather too far. We’re almost at Piccadilly Circus. I have to stop and consult my A to Z**. We need to cut through Leicester Square. But I’m rather in need of a wee. Luckily the St. James Tavern is just over the road.

“I’m sure I met Peter Hayden her once.”

“Yes, very interesting, Ronald. Just get me a half of a nice Bitter, please.” Dolores is very polite.

I get myself a half of Rev James and Dolores one of Doom Bar. She seems happy enough with it.

The pub is a single, pretty much square room. Not really that big. Which makes it a bit of a surprise when Dolores says:


“Have you noticed the crazy number of CCTV cameras. There must be seven or eight at least.”

“That is rather excessive for a room this size.” I agree.

We don’t stay long. It is only a piss stop, after all.

“Look Dolores, Leicester square, London’s cinema heart.”

“I know. We’ve been here before, with the kids. We drank in that pub.” How many years ago was that? Eight? Nine? What a memory Dolores has.

When we finally reach the The Harp we have to push our way in. It’s also packed. Though we spot a spot to the rear. Where we at least have room to stand. I fetch us our expected drinks.

“Look at that rubbish painting of a gypsy woman.” Dolores says, somewhat unkindly. Though she does have a point on both points. It doesn’t have a great deal of artistic merit. And it’s disintegrating.


Weird old portraits – of different, condition quality and age – clutter the walls to the point of complete concealment.

Dolores is happy – as always – with her London Pride. Though she has a Harveys, too. Which she also likes. She has very good taste when it comes to her beer of preference, cask Bitter.

Finally seats become available right at the back. Close to a clutch of smokers clinging to the entrance of the courtyard where they can indulge that most evil of vices.


A slightly odd couple around 60 sit at our table. Pleasant enough to talk to for a minute or ten. But I wouldn’t want them to know my address.

On our way back, we drop by the National Portrait Gallery. It’s quite late, but it’s free and I’ve never been in before. Been to the National Gallery around the corner loads of times. Maybe it’s because I thought it would be boring. I prefer buildings to people. When it comes to pictures.

An escalator zooms us to the top, where we kick off with the Tudors. Blow me. I’ve seen all these paintings on the telly. In the endless documentaries about the Tudors. I enjoy their bloodthirsty antics as much as the next man, but they could let some other periods have their turn.

As we progress through the rooms, we walk our way through generations of royals. And other notable figures of the time. Dodgy politicians, mass-murdering generals and other ruthless, violent characters. It’s all rather cheering.

When we get to the Hanoverians, we’ve had enough. Probably a mistake to start with the Tudors. Most later royals were pretty dull in comparison.

We eat in a Vietnamese place, Pho & Bun, we spotted on Shaftsbury Ave and have the lunch special. It’s reasonably nice, not a huge amount, but not pricey for London.


“That’s a bit of a cheek. They’ve automatically added a 12.5% service charge. I don’t remember seeing that on the menu.” Dolores says with annoyance.

Walking back, the streets are shiny bright and the sky dark. Well, as dark as the sky ever gets in central London. The streets are still busy with swift walkers and stationary taxis.

I pick up a few hotel beers on the way back. Dolores some hotel cider. To drink while we relax in front of the telly. Or stare at the riveting, shifting skyline, long ribbons of colour and pricks of light. That or waste my time reading crap on the internet.

I nip down for a quick couple in the hotel bar to finish the day. I’m on holiday. I can go crazy apeshit if I want.


* FDJ: Freie Deutsche Jugend, the youth movement of the SED, the ruling party in East Germany. Membership wasn’t exactly voluntary.
** Youngsters: ask your grandparents what an A to Z is.



Museum Tavern
49 Great Russell St,
Bloomsbury,
London WC1B 3BA.
Tel: +44 20 7242 8987
https://www.greeneking-pubs.co.uk/pubs/greater-london/museum-tavern


St James Tavern
45 Great Windmill St,
Soho,
London W1D 7NE.
Tel: +44 20 7437 5009
https://www.craft-pubs.co.uk/stjamestavern


The Harp
47 Chandos Pl,
London WC2N 4HS.
Tel: +44 20 7836 0291
http://www.harpcoventgarden.com/


National Portrait Gallery
St. Martin's Pl,
London WC2H 0HE.
Tel: +44 20 7306 0055
http://www.npg.org.uk/


Pho & Bun
76 Shaftesbury Ave,
London W1D 6ND.
Tel: +44 20 7287 3528
http://vieteat.co.uk/pho-bun/



Bankside

We follow the same routine as yesterday. Dolores gets up at 8:45 and makes tea* and we troll downstairs for breakfast at 9:15.

The breakfast room isn’t that busy again. Which is good news. At the Tavistock hotel you regularly have to queue up to get in.

I go for the same grease combination as always. Though with an extra serving of bacon. You can never have too much bacon. Over the other side of the table Dolores is silently disagreeing with her shamefully bacon-free plate.

We’ve a plan for today. Quite a cultural one. Making our first visit to Tate Modern. Dolores noticed that there was an exhibition on about Soviet design. Posters and that short of stuff. I love me a good socialist poster.

In previous years I’ve mostly sat in the pub nursing a pint or two and reading the paper, while Dolores did the museum stuff on her own. Not just because I enjoy sitting in pubs, but also because she wanted to visit exhibitions that weren’t really down my street. Like old shoes. Not into that. But if there’s a chance of seeing pictures of Stalin, count me in.

We plan on taking the tube to Southwark. It’s only when we’re down on the platform at King’s Cross that I realise the Northern Line doesn’t go to Southwark. Damn. My tube knowledge isn’t what it was.

“We’ll have to get off at London Bridge and walk from there.” I tell Dolores. “It’s an interesting walk, anyway.” Especially as it passes the site of the Barclay Perkins brewery. I don’t mention that last bit to Dolores. She’s pig sick of hearing about Barclay Perkins, hence the name of the blog.

It’s all very modern at London Bridge station now. I was here last year for the first time in ages and couldn’t recognise it at all. Is it an improvement? Well, it couldn’t be much worse. It was a pretty crappy station. I always tried to avoid it, if possible.


Borough Market is something else that’s changed quite a bit. There’s a new glass bit on the front that looks a bit out of place. Bigger and posher than I remember it. It’s basically a posh food court now. Dolores hasn’t been here for a decade or two.

“Oh look, Dolores. They’ve got German bread.” Several stalls do in fact.

“Yes and look at the price. Plus it would be stale by the time I got it back home.” Dolores does love her sourdough rye bread. I remember the look of horror on her face when she first saw British bread. She ended up making her own when we lived in Swindon.

“Oh look, Dolores. They’ve got German sausages. Made by German butchers, in Germany.”

“Are you going to say that every time we pass a stall with something German?”

“Probably.”


It doesn’t take us long to thread our way through the market. We pop out the other side next to Southwark Cathedral. Dolores fancies taking a look inside. Why not? It is free.

It’s not the biggest of churches. Probably smaller than Newark parish church. But it’s pleasant enough, in a churchy sort of way. A few of the windows have stained glass. The others were probably blown out during the war. Southwark was bombed quite heavily during the war because of all the warehouses. Including the ones where a third of the 1940 hop crop went up in flames.

At the alter end there are what looks like a combination of several school choirs rehearsing. Some Christmas thing, I suppose. But we can’t wait to hear them sing. Lots of other stuff to do. We leave and continue our walk along the river.

“Look there’s a Viking ship.” I say as we approach the Golden Hind. In joke, that. “The ship Sir Francis Drake sailed around the world in. Well, a copy of it.”


“It’s not very big, is it? Where did everyone sleep?” Dolores wonders.

“Could you imagine sailing around the world in that?”

“No. I’m surprised they didn’t all kill each other.”

It’s quite a windy day, which makes walking on the river embankment extra fun. Though we do get a good view of St. Pauls as a reward for our hardiness.


Once inside Tate Modern were a bit puzzled as to where to go next. The main hall is basically a whole load of empty space, with a few swings for the kids. It’s a nice idea having somewhere for children to play, but it does take up an awful lot of space.

“That’s a bit of a waste.” Dolores observes.

We have plenty of time to stare at the wasted space as we wait in the queue to buy tickets. It takes a while. It doesn’t help that only about half of the positions are occupied.

“They’ve a nerve – saying that the price is £13.30, or £11.30 without a donation. Defaulting to you making a donation.” Dolores doesn’t like being forced into things. I think it’s something to do with having grown up in a dictatorship.

“Do you have to say something to avoid donating?”

“Yes. Don’t worry, I will.”

The exhibition is in the Blavatnik Building, the recently added extension. Entering, there are raw concrete pillars that don’t even look finished.

“I thought they stopped building this sort of crap in 1972.” I remark.

“It’s an industrial building isn’t? That’ll be why it looks like that.”

“No, this bit wasn’t part of the power station, it’s brand new.” Dolores looks unimpressed. I don’t blame her. All the bare concrete looks shit. The whole of the interior is the same, giving it the charm of a 1960’s bus station.

Dolores particularly likes the examples of airbrushing. Where a photo starts out with a crowd and ends up with just Stalin standing by himself, like Billy Nomates. Except he was really Billy Deadmates.

Speaking of which, most disturbing is the section entitled Ordinary People. It’s a table covered with photographs of random Soviet citizens who were killed during the Terror. Pull out a draw and you can read of their sad fates. All off them arrested and killed on false charges. Must have been a barrel of laughs living under Stalin. Even if you fitted in and kept your head down you could still end up dead.

At least the posters are bright and (mostly) cheerful.

While I’m waiting for Dolores to emerge from the toilet, I stare out of the window. At first I think the building opposite, with all its glass, is an office. Then I realise it’s flats. I’d mistaken the sleek, modern seating for office furniture. You can right inside some of the living rooms. Not what I’d want at all. It’s pretty crazy to have a glass-walled living room in the centre of London. Asking for trouble.


The Blavatnik looks much better from the outside. An interesting shape, good texture. I hate to say this, but I quite like it. Still think the inside looks like crap.

We passed The Anchor on the way down and I suggest we drop in for a beer.

It’s mobbed. We wander through the various rooms in search of a seat and eventually spot some people about to leave. Dolores quickly nabs the spot and I trundle over to the bar for drinks. It’s a pretty unimpressive choice: Greene King IPA, London Glory, Old Speckled Hen and something called Anchor Bitter.


As there’s no indication on the pump clip as ask the barman: “Which brewery is it from?”

“I don’t know. I’ll ask and come over and tell you.”

When we’re a couple of sips in, the barman comes over and says: “Greene King.” What a surprise.

It seems like everywhere is run by Greene King now. The Friend at Hand, the Museum Tavern and now here.

“It’s getting to be like the days of the Big Six, when most of the pubs were owned by a handful of breweries.” I tell Dolores.

A group of six of seven Swedes are crushed around a small table close to us. They wrap up in preparation for leaving.

“They should barely need coats. Swedish weather is much worse than this.”

“That’s because you’re English. Everyone on the Continent wears appropriate clothing in the winter.”

The beer not being very inspiring, I suggest that we move on to the London Porter. To get there we walk down Park Street.

“Loads of streets in London have changed names. Like this one. It used to be called Deadman’s Place. I can’t understand why they changed it.”

“Really, Ronald?”

“Or Gropecunt Lane. There really did use to be a street called that.”

“Lovely.”

“It’s where the prostitutes hung out. You have to admit that it’s to the point.”

A couple of people are looking at the Haynau plaque. I take a snap, though I’m pretty sure I already have a picture. I explain to Dolores that he was an Austro-Hungarian general notorious for bloodily suppressing the 1848 revolution. In 1850, he visited the Barclay Perkins brewery, then a big tourist attraction. The draymen recognised him and beat the shit out of him.



“Draymen were usually big, muscular men. And alcoholics, seeing as they drank all day. It was a plum job.”

We pass the last remaining remnant of Barclay Perkins, a pair of 18th-century houses, which used to be occupied by brewers. One still has a fading “Take Courage” sign painted high on a wall. It brings a tear to my eye.


The Market Porter is also mobbed. Not a seat to be had. Though there is one table hidden behind a pillar only occupied by a half-empty pint. When no-one returns after a few minutes, we sit there.

I get myself an Old Ale of some description and a Harvey’s Sussex Best for Dolores. She asked for a nice Bitter and they don’t come much nicer than that.

Pointing at the half-empty glass, Dolores says: “It looks like the same beer you’re drinking.”


“No, it can’t be. Look at the head – it hasn’t changed all the time we’ve been sitting her. It must be Guinness.” Scarily, the head remains exactly the same during the time it takes us to knock back two pints each.

We see the Swedes standing outside. What are they doing? Drinking coffee.

“That’s not very Swedish.” Actually, it is. Swedes drink loads of coffee. But there’s a perfectly good pub here. I sometimes forget that not everyone is as big a pisshead as me.

I noticed a few days ago on the internet that the Parcel Yard had cask Golden Pride. Never had that before. I suggest that we get the Northern Line back to Kings Cross and nip in there for a quick pint. Dolores gives my plan the nod and off we go.

As we’re walking towards the Parcel Yard we notice a crowd of people queueing up. What are they doing? Waiting for their turn to be photographed in front of the sign for platform 9¾. This Harry Potter thing has got totally out of hand.


I’m disappointed when I get to the bar. The Golden Pride is gone. Dolores is happy enough: there’s London Pride.

No point hanging around for more than one. We’ve not eaten in a while and decide to drop in the Euston Flyer on the way back to the hotel for a pie and a pint.

Another crowded pub, but we do manage to find a table for two.

“Do you have 1845?”

“No.”

“A pint of London Pride and a pint of ESB then.” Damn. They used to sell 1845.

Dolores has fish and chips with her pint. I swop my mash for her chips. See how complementary we are?


We nip in the Waitrose in the Brunswick for some hotel beer. I’m glad to find some crafty stuff as it’s high ABV. I’m not going to drink it for the taste, obviously. It all tastes like muck. Just for all that alcoholy goodness.

The evening passes with telly, beer and some pointless wading through the sewer that is the internet. And holding my nose as I gulp down some crafty filth.


* If you’re thinking this is sexist, I’ll point out that I bring Dolores a cup of tea in bed every weekday morning.


http://www.tate.org.uk/whats-on/tate-modern/exhibition/red-star-over-russia


Anchor Bankside
34 Park St,
London SE1 9EF
Tel: +44 20 7407 1577
https://www.greeneking-pubs.co.uk/pubs/greater-london/anchor-bankside


The Market Porter
9 Stoney St,
London SE1 9AA.
Tel: +44 20 7407 2495
https://www.themarketporter.co.uk/


The Parcel Yard
Euston Rd,
Kings Cross,
London N1C 4AH
Tel: +44 20 7713 7258
http://www.parcelyard.co.uk/


The Euston Flyer
83-87 Euston Rd,
Kings Cross,
London NW1 2RA.
Tel: +44 20 7383 0856
http://www.eustonflyer.co.uk



Canterbury Ales

I awake with a headache.  If only the cause was an overindulgence yesterday. A couple of paracetamol would see that off.

We have to queue to get into the breakfast room. It’s mobbed. Probably because it’s Saturday. Luckily, we don’t have to wait too long.

My stomach is playing up. I can barely eat at anything. I force down a slice of bacon and half a fried egg. What is wrong?

The plan is to go to Victoria and get a train to Canterbury East. But first I watch the Rugby League World Cup final. The first time I’ve seen England look stronger than Australia. For at least part of the game. Have the Aussies got worse of England/GB better? A single converted Australian try is the only score.

Victoria is just as I remember it from my London commuting days: totally overrun with people. And it’s the weekend. I dread to think what it’s like during rush hour. We’re aiming for a train at 12:07. We’ve got 20-odd minutes but the queues at both the ticket machines and manned counters are huge. We plump for the counter queue.

Tickets in hand, we’ve just a few minutes to rush to the other side of the station where our train is waiting. We jump on and find seats.

I haven’t brought ant train beers. Not sure my stomach is up to beer at the moment.

I notice the distinctive blocky shape of a Norman keep. “Look Dolores, there’s a castle.”

In tuns out to be Rochester. The town and its castle look impressive from the train. It seems to be a popular destination as our carriage mostly empties. Giving us the chance to swop to seats with rather more legroom.

We pass orchards with row after row of low hedge-like trees. Dolores remarks “Lots of the trees still have apples on them. That’s a bit weird considering they’ve lost all their leaves. I wonder why that is?”

“No idea.”*

I spot the distinctive poles and wires of a hop garden.

“Look, Dolores, a hop garden.”

“Yes, very interesting.” Dolores says unenthusiastically. To be fair to her, it’s not very big. Unlike in Bavaria, where hops stretch as far as the eye can see.


Jumping off the train in Canterbury, I start to take the most direct route to the town centre. Except the road I want to take is designed to deter pedestrians. Nowhere to cross, no pavements and fences at the edge of the road. I guess they don’t want us to go this way.


Instead we have to take a footbridge over the road that leads to a little park, which is separated from the road by the city walls. We walk along the top of the walls a bit, then climb a mound that gives us a good view of the town.


That’s enough dawdling. We head into town. Which is bustling with shoppers. With all the decorations, it looks very Christmassy. Which is exactly what Dolores is after.

“Can we go to a pub?” This is good news. And unusual. Dolores dragging me to a pub. “I need to go to the toilet.” That explains it, then.

I consulted my 2018 Good Beer Guide back in Amsterdam. The best bet in the centre of town seemed to be the Foundry brewpub, which is on a side street off the main drag.


It doesn’t look very open. The front door is closed. Then I notice a note on the door. It says they are open, the door is just shit to keep the cold out.

Inside it’s pretty full. The closed door is doing its job: it’s cosily warm inside.

Order Dolores Gold as the nearest to Bitter, then read what hops are in it: Magnum and Citra. Oh, er. I hope she likes it. Too late to change my mind as the barmaid is already pulling it. Dolores isn’t a fan of what she calls grapefruit beer.

“How’s your beer, Dolores?”

“Fine.” Luckily, she hasn’t noticed the American hops.

“Do you want to try my Porter?”

“Eeugh. That’s horrible.” It is a bit harsh. But it isn’t that bad. Though it’s way too pale – barley darke than a dark Bitter.

It’s getting very crowded. A group partially seats themselves at the empty spaces on our table. I reckon we were lucky to get a seat. We must have arrived just after someone left.

On the way down, Dolores noticed that there were trains going in the other direction to St. Pancras. Getting a train there would save getting the tube from Victoria. So Dolores picked up some timetables in the station and is trying to work out the best route home.

We only stay for the one. Dolores wants to have a proper poke around town before the shops shut.


The town is full of French, Dutch and Germans. I guess they’re over for Christmas shopping.

“Just wait until after Brexit. Then there will just be just us British people her.”

“Have you forgotten that I’m, German? And you’ll be Dutch next year.” She has a point.

Two burly, tattooed are men facing up to each other, hurling insults. And looking close to hurling fists.

“Come ‘round the corner where there’s no camera, you coward.”

A copper turns up and as we scuttle of hurriedly, I remark to Dolores: “Nice of them to lay on some street theatre.”

We potter around a few shops – Marks, Smiths. And pick up a few bits and bobs. We pop into a specialist calendar shop. They must have a seasonal trade. I contemplate getting a tank calendar for Andrew.

“It’s a shame they don’t have a Bob’s Burgers calendar for Lexxie.” I quip. Family joke there.


We head over to the cathedral. I’d told Dolores that it was dead important and impressive. The gate that leads to the cathedral complex is certainly impressive. But you have to pay to pass it.

“Pah! £12.50 to get into the cathedral complex – they’re taking the mick.” Dolores isn’t impressed. We decide to give it a miss.


It’s about time for another pub. Fortunately, there’s one on the little square where the cathedral gateway is. It’s called the Old Buttermarket.

“Oh look, it’s a Nicholson’s pub. They usually have decent beer.”

Dolores’s face lights up as she sees the handpulls: they’ve got London Pride.  No need to ask her what she wants. I go for a Thornbridge Wild Holly.


It, too, is mobbed, but we find a space by the window. A German couple with English friend are sitting next to us. Their conversation turns to Brexit and I automatically start shutting it out. I’m bored shitless of this Brexit shit.

I get another pie, Dolores a steak. I swop my mash for her chips again. It’s almost like we were meant to be a couple.

After a couple of pints, we stumble outside. There’s no-one on the cathedral gate so we wander inside the precinct. We can’t go inside because there’s a service. But I get some impressive snaps of the giant yellow moon over the cathedral roof.


Going back via St. Pancras is definitely a good idea. It’s much quicker. And we finish within walking distance of our hotel’

Though to break the walk we drop by the Euston Flyer on the way back. More London Pride for Dolores, an ESB for me.

There’s no Double IPA left at the Waitrose when we nip in for some hotel beers. Damn. Have to make do with Thornbrige Halcyon at a puny 7.4% ABV. At least I have a pint glass to drink it from. Dolores picked one up in a pub earlier.


* The answer is Brexit. They were short of pickers from Eastern Europe this year.



The Foundry Brew Pub  
White Horse Ln,
Canterbury CT1 2RU.
Tel: +44 1227 455899
http://www.thefoundrycanterbury.co.uk


The Old Buttermarket
39 Burgate,
Canterbury CT1 2HW.
Tel: +44 1227 462170
https://www.nicholsonspubs.co.uk/restaurants/southeast/theoldbuttermarketcanterbury


The Euston Flyer
83-87 Euston Rd,
Kings Cross,
London NW1 2RA.
Tel: +44 20 7383 0856
http://www.eustonflyer.co.uk


Home again

I feel much better this morning. No headache and I don’t feel like puking. I call that a win win.

The queue for the breakfast room is even longer this morning. We hang around for five minutes before being seated. At least the queue is as long now as when we joined it.

I serve myself another dockers breakfast. With extra bacon. You really can never have too much bacon. Dolores has gone instead for beans on toast with a couple of poached eggs. “Health nazi.” I think as I look at her sad plate. I don’t say it, mind. Not a good way to start the day getting a kick on the shins. Or worse. I’ve learned that it’s not a clever to anger Dolores.

Two 50-something sisters are sitting next to us. Gossiping away incessantly. Mostly about someone called Sean, who appears to be their brother. “I never spoke much with. He’d come around ours and just sit there saying nothing. Our make that stupid laugh of his.” They’re from Manchester way, judging by the accent. Unfortunately, their breakfast ends before the interminable Sean tale. I never get to hear the ending.

Dolores heads off to the shops while I watch Sunday Brunch and finish the packing. When Dolores returns with the meat and crisps, she has some news. KLM have sent her an SMS saying that our flight has been cancelled.


Looking on my flipflop, I see they’ve sent me a message, too. We need to get in touch with KLM to see about rebooking on another flight. Dolores calls them and, with remarkably little faffing around, we’re rebooked on a flight about an hour later than planned. But it’s from Heathrow rather than London City. And with BA rather than KLM.

Oh well, things could have been worse. Like when I had to hang around in Charles de Gaulle all bloody day on my way back from Chile. And, in terms of transport, Heathrow is easier to get to. We just have to jump on a Piccadilly line tube at Russell Square.

I’ve never been to Heathrow Terminal 5 before. It’s so long since I was last at Heathrow, Terminal 5 hadn’t even been built.

The machine won’t let us check in so we have to go to a desk. Not a problem as there isn’t much of a queue. Before you know it the bag is checked in and we’re standing in the security queue. Which is lovely and short.

Have you noticed that airports are turning into shopping centres with a secondary transport function? Terminal 5 is taking this to a new extreme. Especially as hardly any of the shops are selling useful stuff like food and booze, but instead are mostly selling designer shite Where’s the Wetherspoons?

We eventually find a map. With no Wetherspoons marked, only a couple of “undergoing renovation” signs. The only refreshment possibility seems to be a place called the Pilot Bar.

It’s quite full. We quickly grab a couple of seats, but are told that we have to wait for a waitress to seat us. 30 seconds later a waitress shows to exactly the same seats we’ve just been told to vacate. That was fun.

There isn’t much of a beer list. Heineken Pils, Lagunitas IPA. I guess there is an upside to Heineken buying them up.

A Geordie about my age sits at our table. He goes for Lagunitas, too, though without a great deal of enthusiasm. “The Weatherspoons is shut.” He tells us in a voice tinged with sadness and regret. “There’s nowhere else to come but here.” It’s obviously somewhere he’d never usually come. Nor would I, if the Spoons were open.

Dolores checks on our flight. “It says the gate is closing.” Damn. I thought our flight was 30 minutes later. I know have to rush down my pint. “Don’t worry, we’ve got a bag checked in. They can’t leave without us.” But we still hurry to the gate, which luckily is close at hand.

At least there was a Boots in Terminal 5. Where I picked up a sarnie for the flight. Cheese and onion, for just a quid. I rightly predicted BA wouldn’t be feeding us.

After a bit of waiting around for the checked in bag we’re out of the airport and on a number 69 bus. The flat is still intact when we return. Though all the Amstel and all but a thimbleful of the gin have disappeared. Looks like the kids have had a productive weekend.

Wednesday 27 June 2018

Let's Brew Wednesday - 1956 Tennant's Gold Label

It’s great to have recipes for some of the notable beers of the post-war period. Like Tennant’s Gold Label.

Gold Label is interesting for several reasons. It was the first pale Barley Wine, for a start. But one that became so popular, that for quite a while I thought colour was the main difference between Old Ale and Barley Wine. Old Ale dark, Barley Wine pale.

It was also aged in wood for around a year at this point. Which tells me that there was almost certainly some Brettanomyces character to the end product. That also probably knocked the FG down by a few points.

Finally, it’s much stronger than most beers brewed in the 1950s. There were only a handful of beers of a similar strength. Things like Barclay’s Russian Stout and Benskins Colne Spring Ale.

It’s not a particularly complicated recipe: pale malt, flaked maize and sugar. There’s quite a lot of the latter two, presumably in order to keep the colour pale. And it helps the rate of attenuation, which is pretty high for a beer of this strength.

The hopping is pretty heavy and there’s a long boil, which, in combination, leave the finished beer at over 70 calculated IBUs.

1956 Tennant's Gold Label
pale malt 14.75 lb 67.82%
enzymic malt 0.25 lb 1.15%
flaked maize 4.00 lb 18.39%
No. 1 invert sugar 2.75 lb 12.64%
Fuggles 230 mins 2.50 oz
Goldings 230 mins 0.75 oz
Goldings 60 mins 3.25 oz
Hallertau dry hops 0.67 oz
OG 1103.5
FG 1020
ABV 11.05
Apparent attenuation 80.68%
IBU 72
SRM 9
Mash at 147º F
Sparge at 165º F
Boil time 230 minutes
pitching temp 56º F
Yeast Wyeast 1099 Whitbread ale

Tuesday 26 June 2018

Substitutes in German brewing

You may recall that I have a bit of a thing about the Reinheitsgebot. I find it a fascinating topic.

Of course, in the period this article was written there was no such thing as the Reinheitsgebot. That term only came into use after WW I. And until 1908, the law on only brewing from malt, hops, water and yeast only applied to Bavaria, not the rest of Germany.

But it seems that things were more complicated than that. There were restrictions on the ingredients that could be used in beer in the whole of Germany.
"The use of substitutes in Bavaria is forbidden absolutely. There are two laws bearing on the question:—

(1) The Food and Drugs Act, and (2) The Malt Act.— Under the Food and Drugs Act it has been decided by, the Courts in a series of cases that the use of any material which tends to make the beer appear or actually be better or worse than is actually the case - viewed in the light of the fact that normal beer in Bavaria is by law and popular opinion regarded as a product obtained from malt, hops, and water, and subsequent fermentation — is not allowable.

The use of any material which alters the normal composition of a beer, tends to hide natural deficiencies, &c, is absolutely forbidden. The enalty is a fine of not more than 1,500 marks (£75), and six months’ imprisonment. Anyone concerned in the use or sale of such substances is subject to these penalties. It has been decided by the Courts that the use of caramel, bicarbonate of soda, tartaric acid, heading powder, grape-sugar (glucose), tannin, salicylic acid, &c., are illegal under the Food Act, and the persons concerned were condemned to various penalties. These cases occurred in the years 1885 and 1886. (Literature available.)

Under the Malt Act (a fiscal measure), the use of any material whatever in the manufacture of beer, except barley, malt, hops, water, and yeast is absolutely forbidden. Where the offencc can be brought either under the Food Act or the Malt Act, the former is always put in force, as the penalties are heavier.

In Germany generally (Imperial Law — Reichsgesetz) apart from Bavaria, the use of certain substitutes is allowed, but if these substitutes in any way alter the composition of the beer from the normal (i.e. a beer brewed from malt and hops alone), or tend to make a beer brewed from bad materials appear better than it really is, or worse, the use of such substitute is forbidden except on condition that such beers be qualified as "substitute ” beers, and given a special name clearly showing to the public that such beer is not a normal liquid. If a pure substitute be used and the normal composition of the beer be thereby in no way altered, the beer may be sold as “beer,” but it may not be sold in such a manner as to make the buyer believe that it is a beer brewed from "normal” materials alone. This applies also to wine. From this, and the decision of the Courts, it appears that there is a rigorous check on the use of impure substitutes and the abnormal use of even pure substitutes. In Bavaria it is held by the authorities that even a pure substitute must alter the actual character and properties of a beer, and, if this view be adopted by the Judges in Germany, it is evident that the existing Imperial Laws are sufficient to prohibit their use absolutely in the whole of Germany. This view has been adopted by some of the Courts. It is, therefore, incorrect to say that the use of substitutes is allowed in Germany, with the exception of Bavaria alone. As stated before, there are Imperial regulations as to analytical methods for detecting impurities and abnormal composition of wine, beers.

Apart from Chemical analysis, however, it was considered by all the authorities consulted in Munich that it would be quite impossible for a brewer to use substitutes without detection, and detection would mean his absolute ruin. Each brewer in Munich vies with the other in trying to produce a better beer; the quality of the beer is his chief advertisement. The manager of the largest brewery in Munich said to me, "If a brewer were detected in the use of substitutes — and he could not help bein detected — he would not only be ruined, but the people would try to lynch him as well.” This graphically expresses the very strong opinion on this question held in Bavaria."
"The Brewers' Journal, 1898", page 242.
So you were only allowed to use substitutes if they didn't alter the nature of the beer. That doesn't really fit with what I've read about German rice beer, where the whole point of its use was to produce something that was lighter and more delicately flavoured.

The idea of having to name beer that wasn't brewed from malt and hops alone something else was floated in the UK around this time. Campaigners for "pure beer" wanted beer contained adjuncts or sugar to be clearly stated as doing so. They didn't get very far with that one.

I wonder if any Bavarian brewerss were ever lynched? It wouldn't surprise me. They are pretty crazy when it comes to beer down there.

Monday 25 June 2018

Lager brewing in late 19th century Japan

I often do searches for "Lager" in books. It turns up all sorts of fascinating stuff. Like this article about Lager brewing in Japan.

"The Journal of Commcrre of Victoria is responsible for some information anent the brewing industry in “Jolly Japan" that will be read with pleasure by all who rejoice to see the extension of the realms over which John Barleycorn holds sway. It appears that the director and manager of the Osaka Beer Brewery Company, Osaka, has recently been on a protracted visit to the United States of America, and whilst there he confided to the ears of some American journalists a few details concerning the extent of the beer trade in the go-ahead empire of Japan. We learn that the annual output of beer amounts to 100,000 barrels, but that the demand is increasing so rapidly that in time beer will seriously rival “saka” in the afiections of the Japanese native. The sooner the better, all of us will say, but that a stern battle will have to be fought, a mere mention of the fact that there are about five millions of barrels of “saka ” annually consumed, amply testifies. This native beverage, being made from the abundant cereal rice, naturally has a firm footing in a land where rice is as much an article of daily food as is Wheaten bread in our own country, but considering that Japan was hardly heard of from a European point of view of civilisation before 1870, it must be conceded that the drinks of the Goths and Vandals of Northern Europe are steadily gaining in popular favour. The system of brewing hitherto pursued at Osaka is that in force in Bavarian breweries, where, indeed, the manager of the Osaka establishment learnt his profession, but his mission to the States was undertaken solely with the object of supervising the manufacture of new plant for the production of lager beer in Japan on American principles. The raw materials for manufacturing this beer will include, besides, we assume, maize and rice, barleys hailing from America and Japan, and hops grown under the scorching skies of California. The Journal of Commerce of Victoria says, somewhat despondently, that Australasian hops do not apper to have received the attention of the manager of the Osaka Beer Brewery Company, but doubtless if the Journal should meet his eye, he will be able to remedy this little oversight. Transport freights should not be very high from Australian ports to Osaka, as inhabitants of these bright countries are in the habit of exchanging holiday visits to one another's hospitahle shores. Whilst commenting on the beneficial spread of beer-drinking habits as opposed to a proneness to imbibe ardent spirits, we might point out the neat increase in the ranks of beer drinkers in Paris an France generally. Every humanitarian will view with pleasure the abolition of those innumerable “petits verres," and the adoption instead thereof of a sound, healthy beverage such as the juice of honest Barleycorn. We believe the same tendencies are at work in Russia, and doubtless as civilisation marches along, we shall witness a gradual lessening in the consumption of absinthe, inferior brandy, and vile vodka."
"The Brewers' Journal, 1898", page 66.

I can't remember ever hearing Japan described as "jolly" before.

Interesting that the Osaka Brewery had started with German technology but was moving over to UA kit. To me, that says brewing with corn grits and fermenting in sealed vessels. Obviously, it made far more sense for a Japanese brewery to buy Californian rather than European hops. Though Australian ones would indeed have meade even more.

During WW I, the Japanese moved into the Far Eastern market., especially the Dutch East Indies. With brewing in trouble in Holland and international trade disrupted by German submarine warfare, Japanese brewers faced little competition. Especially when the export of beer from Holland was forbidden:

"Beer Export Forbidden
The export of beer is forbidden."
De Tijd, 29-05-1916, page 2. (My translation.)
In other parts of Asia, Japanese Lager replaced the products of the Central Powers.
"The Germans have many smart well as shameful things to their credit. In the former is the success with which have been able to capture a considerable portion of the Indian market with their beer. The most famous of all English beers — pale ale — which is known and appreciated all over the world, originated with the demand by Anglo-Indians, and, according to tradition, the reputation and fortune of one of our greatest brewing firms owes its origin to the wreckage of a cargo off the British Isles, when the virtues "East India Pale Ale" first became known to stay-at-homes. The explanation of the present esteem of the German article lies in a preference for a lighter drink. At the moment Japanese brews are replacing those of Munich and Pilsen. But surely England will come into its own again."
Exeter and Plymouth Gazette - Monday 25 January 1915, page 3.
The last senetnce proved to be overly optimistic.