Friday 30 September 2011

Coal in Alloa

Alloa was, as we know, one of the great centres of Scottish brewing. Did they have coal there? This quote answers the question:

"Alloa is a sea-port, and much known for its many whisky-distilleries, ale-breweries, collieries, and glasshouses."
"Caledonian sketches" by Sir John Carr, 1809, page 246.

That's pretty clear. And note the early date: 1809.

Would they have used peat in malting with collieries on their doorstep? Of course they bloody wouldn't.

Just wait until I get started on malting in Scotland.

Brewing in Scotland in the 1840's

Just a short quote today. It's taken from a book published in the 1840's. One of those things called a dictionary but which are really more like an encyclopedia.

The Ale and Beer entry has some nice statistics which sucked me in. The mention of Scottish beer came as a bonus:

"The brewing of ale has long constituted a principal, or rather, perhaps, we might say the principal, manufacturing employment carried on in Edinburgh, The best Edinburgh ale is of a pale colour, mild, glutinous, and adhesive. It is much stronger and more intoxicating than porter, from 4 to 5 bushels of malt being generally used in brewing a barrel of ale, with about 1 lb. of hops to a bushel of malt. At present (1843) the produce of the ale breweries of Edinburgh may be estimated at about 195,000 barrels a year. Very good ale is also made at Preston Pans, Alloa, and other Scotch towns. Considerable quantities of Edinburgh ale are sent to London; though this trade has latterly been decreasing. Very good ale may be produced by brewers on a small scale, but it is doubtful whether this be the case with porter; at all events the best porter is all produced in very large establishments.

Formerly it was not supposed that really good porter could be made any where except in London. Of late years, however, Dublin porter has attained to high and hot unmerited reputation; though we certainly are not of the number of those who ronsider it equal to the best London porter.

Large quantities of a light, pale, and highly-hopped variety of ale have been for some considerable time past exported to the East Indies, where it is in high estimation; and is now, also, rather extensively used in summer in this country."
"A Dictionary, Practical, Theoretical, and Historical, of Commerce and Commercial Navigation" by John Ramsay McCulloch, 1844, page 9.

I'm particularly pleased to see a har figure put on the output of Edinburgh breweries. 195,000 barrels isn't a great deal, really. Not considering the fame of Edinburgh beer. Though it is a considerable percentage of the beer brewed in Scotland, which was around 500,000 barrrels a year in the 1840's.

Small beer indeed, compared to the big boys in London. The two largest each produced about the same as the whole of Scotland. Brewing was still on a relatively modest scale in Scotland in the first half of the 19th century. It was only in the latter decades that the big Edinburgh and Alloa brewers were able to rival the large London producers.

Here are the alrgest London brewers of the same period:

Barrels of beer brewed used by the largest London brewers
Brewer 1831 1838 1839 1840 1841 1842 1851
Barclay & Co. 388,792 429,820 449,104 462,244 425,380 456,360 462,168
Truman & Co. 202,896 360,560 364,276 392,840 352,528 369,876 420,088
Whitbread & Co. 198,852 181,840 207,916 214,488 207,368 208,392 207,200
Reid & Co. 173,520 179,712 176,040 192,520 191,920 200,480 226,560
Combe & Co. 138,736 173,776 162,848 153,472 145,840 185,936 173,128
Calvert & Co. 122,100 126,116 124,112 123,488 122,460 122,640 114,552
Meux & Co. 97,356 140,260 153,860 163,148 158,332 161,360 238,468
Hoare & Co. 96,408 125,112 124,032 121,240 117,800 118,428 140,000
Elliott & Co. 77,776 88,000 91,960 101,020 101,100 108,200 118,232
Taylor & Co. 87,380 109,280 103,820 109,200 149,200 78,120 63,480
Goding & Co. 65,228 58,524 52,256
Charrington & Co. 42,120 81,160 74,752 73,312 73,312 81,692 84,064
Courage & Co. 32,464 42,892 41,824 46,128 46,128 52,064 57,876
Thorne & Co. 5,780 83,384 88,088
Mann & Co. 5,208 46,616 96,120
Total 1,734,616 2,038,528 2,074,544 2,153,100 2,279,892 2,143,548 2,542,280
1831, 1841 and 1851:The food of London by George Dodd, 1856, page 463.
1838, 1839, 1840 and 1842: "A Dictionary, Practical, Theoretical, and Historical, of Commerce and Commercial Navigation" by John Ramsay McCulloch, 1844, page 12.
Noumber of barrels brewed estimated from malt usage - I've assumed 4 barrels from a quarter of malt.

The description of Edinburgh Ale isn't bad: "pale colour, mild, glutinous, and adhesive." Pretty gloopy stuff then. Not surprising when you see the final gravity of these beers.

Prestonpans is another of those obscure brewing towns. Its fame seems to have relies pretty much on a single brewer: Fowler. In a way, the memory of Prestonpans does remain. Fowler was, of course, the brewer of as certain beer called "Fowler's Wee Heavy". The beer that gave us that rather irritating beer style. Prestonpans beer, from the analyses I've seen, was even more syrupy than Edinburgh Ale.

I though I may as well continue the quote past the Scottish stuff because of the bit about IPA. And how it was drunk in Britian during the summer. Not particularly surprising, but I've not seen it mentioned before.

Thursday 29 September 2011

Peat in Scottish brewing

You know the story. Brewers in the exotic Highlands of Scotland using peat to kiln their malt. I've never believed a word of it. People mixing up whisky and beer. Fun in a glass, annoying on the page.

It wasn't just for your amusement and delight that I compiled that map of Scottish breweries in 1837. I wanted to get a feel for where Scottish breweries were locates and concentrated. It worked even better than I had anticipated. The picture is unmistakable.

Guess where this is going? I quickly searched the web for two companion maps. One showing the distribution of peat in Scotland, the other showing the coalfields. Looking at the three maps together is very revealing

Do you see what I mean? The vast majority of breweries are in areas where there's little or no peat. But slap on top of Scotland's coal fields.

Why the hell would they drag bulky, soggy, stinky peat into central Scotland when there was all that coal?

Wednesday 28 September 2011

Alloa breweries

Remember my post about Alloa breweries? Well Barm at I might just have a glass of beer has been around the city photographing what's left. Bugger all, sadly.

But he did get some nice snaps of the the Meadow Brewery, former home of George Younger. They show just how much of the brewery structure remains.

Let's Brew Wednesday - 1868 Younger No. 3

This is a very special day. Not just because this is actually appearing on a Wednesday. It's more to do with the beer: Younger's No. 3. A beer I've a special relationship with.

I did once homebrew, when I was young. I started before I was even of legal drinking age. Being broke, there was a big incentive to homebrew. Which, as I recall, was our real motivation. By we, I mean me and my brother Dave.

One of our earliest brews was a clone of Younger's No. 3 that had been published in What's Brewing. At the time, it wasn't available commercially. It was during one of several periods when the beer had been discontinued by Scottish and Newcastle. The clone recipe used black malt for colour. It helped hide the malt extract base twang. Overall, one of our better brews.

I've since had the commercial version many times. It was always my favourite of Scottish and Newcastle's cask beers. I didn't initially realise the history of No. 3 and its role in Scottish brewing. I feel privileged to have had it in the wild.

Some of you have probably tried No. 3, too. If you have, this recipe might come as a shock. Because if there's one thing that was distinctive about No. 3 it was the colour. A lovely dark brown. Whereas this one is . . . . pale.

Scotch Ale. Yes, this is a genuine Scotch Ale. Though it was usually just called Strong Ale in Scotland. Sometime in the 1850's, William Younger overhauled their beer range. introducing loads of new products. Most notable was a range of numbered Ales, from 1 to 4. They seem to have been inspired by the numbered Burton ales of Bass and others. No. 1 was a powerful brew, with a gravity of 1099º.  Working down the range, No. 2 was 1088º, No. 3 was 1077º and No. 4 was 1068º. No .1 was marketed in England as Scotch Ale, but could easily have been called a Barley Wine.

From the outset, the more moderate-strength No. 3 was the most popular of the four. Continuing through war, crisis and recession, right up to the present day. While the name might have stayed the same, the beer underneath didn't. Like most other Ales (I'm not including Pale Ale in this) it underwent a mysterious change in colour sometime towards the end of the 19th century. And moved from pale to dark.

If I've so many Younger's records, why am I so vague about the date? Because, they continued to brew their beers pale, colouring them later as required. How can I be so sure then that these beers were indeed dark in colour? Because of those oh-so-handy Gravity Books, which often give the colour. It was a reasonably common beer in London in the first half of the 20th century, where it took Burton's place in a pub's draught lineup.

Like all British beers, the gravity was nibbled away in the 20th century. It fell to about 1053º between the wars. By 1966, it was 1045º and in 1982 1042º.

This beer tells us so much about British brewing. About the links between Burton and Edinburgh beers. And how hard it is to pin a specific style label on many beers of the past. What is No. 3? A Scotch Ale? A Burton Ale? A Strong Ale? The answer is, it's all three. (Maybe that's why it's called number three.)

And on that confusing note, it's over to Kristen . . . . . . . .

Kristen’s Version:

Another very short explanation. What the Youngers logs have in extraordinary details for their brewing, all of the beers are very very simple. So, on to this awesome double IPA thing. A wee heavy little beastie indeed!

Grist – I haven’t used Golden Promise in quite a long time so I decided it was about time. You can absolutely use Maris Otter or really any other wonderful Englishy malt you’d like. I have come to really like two very different types of pale malts. My very favorite is the MFB pale malt. I’ve found that if you had to have one single malt to do really absolutely anything in the realm of beer, this would be more than adequate. Bitter, IPA, Pils, etc. On the other end of the spectrum, my other favorite malt for different reasons (mostly cost and its ability to play second fiddle extremely well) is Great Western pale malt. You’ll find a massive amount of American breweries use it for everything. I think it is very nice and does a great job, just not as good at everything that the MFB pale malt.

Hops – This beer, as can be seen, is about 3:1 or 4:1 Czech: English hops. The English ones can really be anything but I’d stay with a low alpha variety for the amount of greenery you need to add in. As for the Czech, I used 100% Saaz. Czech Saaz at that. Pivní Filosof, Evan Rail, Alistair Reece and I had a great conversation just a week or so ago about the ability to make a big hoppy beer using 100% Czech Saaz. This is pretty much that beer. The thought is/was that one can’t do it. You just can’t get that bitterness. This, is entirely untrue. What you will find is that the bitterness is very different. Its much less harsh. Additionally, I find the aroma is much much higher on this beer (all low AA% hop IPAs even) simply due to the fact of the vast amount of hop that goes in. More essential oils and such. If you need another reason to make this beer, do so for that fact. A big, crisp, dry IPA thingy with a butte tonne of low alpha hops.

Yeast – I really like the dry Nottingham for this beer. It dries out extremely well. Finishes quick. Its cheap! That being said, use what you like. A yeast cake would be good for those of you that don’t do starters well. Its very important you get enough yeast into this bugger to dry it out.

Tuesday 27 September 2011

Scottish breweries in 1837 - the map

For those of you not over-conversant with the geography of Scotland (that includes me), here'a a handy map of all the breweries I listed yesterday.

It makes it all the easier to spot where the concentrations were. A note of the coding of the markkers:

green 1 brewery
yellow 2 - 4 breweries
red 5 - 9 breweries
blue - 10 or more breweries

View Scottish breweries in 1837 in a larger map

Monday 26 September 2011

Scottish breweries in 1837

I've been doing a little research into Scottish brewing. Seemed I should, this being Scotland week and all. I've unearthed some handy stuff. What I'm sharing today being a good example.

Let's kick off with a disclaimer. This is not a complete list of Scottish breweries. You can see that number in this table:

Brewers & beer retailers in 1838

England Scotland Ireland

No. No. No.
Brewers of strong beer not exceeding 20 barrels 8,996 62 29
Brewers of strong beer exceeding 20 but not exceeding 50 barrels 8,520 24 1
Brewers of strong beer exceeding 50 but not exceeding 100 barrels 10,445 28 11
Brewers of strong beer exceeding 100 but not exceeding 1000 barrels 18,306 211 55
Brewers of strong beer exceeding 1000 barrels 1,597 114 145
Brewers of table beer 14 90
Retail brewers under 5 Geo. IV. C. 54 18 20
Total brewers 47,896 549 241
"A Cyclopaedia of Commerce, Mercantile Law, Finance, Commercial Geography and Navigation", by William Waterston, 1863, page 79

In total there were more than 500 breweries in Scotland (if you include the 90 Table Beer breweries). The list below contains 275. My guess is that it includes most of those brewing more than 1,000 barrels and the majority of those brewing between 100 and 1,000 barrels.

You can easily spot the important brewing centres: Alloa, Edinburgh, Aberdeen, Dundee, Forfar and Glasgow. Mostly pretty obvious, as they are Scotland's larger cities. Except for Alloa and Forfar, obviously.

The breweries are mostly concentrated around the centre of the Lowlands and the East Coast. It'll be more clear when I publish the map tomorrow. As will be the gaping hole. I'm sure you can guess where that is.

Scottish breweries in 1837
brewery address town
Knox Robert & Son Cambus Alloa
Maclay James Mills' brewery Alloa
McNellan John Shore Alloa
Meiklejohn Robert & Son Candle st Alloa
Mitchell William High st Alloa
Paterson Thomas Lucas Forth Bank Brewery Alloa
Roy Andrew Alloa brewery Alloa
Syme John H. Hatton park Alloa
Towers and Co. Grange Alloa
Younger George New Market st  Alloa
Aitchison John & Co South back of Canongate Edinburgh
Aitken Robert William Meadow Bank Edinburgh
Alexander and Co.  North back of Canongate Edinburgh
Anderson Stephen Barrowloch  Edinburgh
Barker Thomas 8 Yard heads, L.  Leith
Bell, Kier & Co.  46 Pleasance  Edinburgh
Berwick Alex & Co.  Gentle's close  Edinburgh
Black & McNair 11 St. Anthony st, Leith  Leith
Blair John 23 North back of Canongate Edinburgh
Brown George Bell 71 North back of Canongate Edinburgh
Campbell Archibald & Co. 45 Cowgate Edinburgh
Cowpar Thomas & Son Drumdryan  Edinburgh
Cunningham James D.  195 Cowgate  Edinburgh
Dick Peter Robertson's close Cowgate  Edinburgh
Donald Ryrie Horse wynd  Edinburgh
Drybrough Andrew North back of Canongate  Edinburgh
Edinburgh & Leith Brewing Co. Playhouse close  Edinburgh
Fulton John 80 Pleasance Edinburgh
Henderson & King 69 Constitution st, L. Leith
Kerr James 9 Sciennes st Edinburgh
Kidd John 6 St. Anthony st. Leith Leith
Kinghorn Alexander Coburg st. L. Leith
Lamond Peter & Sons 23 Grass market Edinburgh
Mackenzie Robert Hall 24 Sheriff brae Edinburgh
Maitland, Davidson & Co.  Meadow bank Edinburgh
Miller John 6 Hay st Edinburgh
Mitchell Jamen Peter Main point Brewery, 3 Lauriston st Edinburgh
Muir John 28 North back of Canongate Edinburgh
Napier George & Co.  28 Abbey hill Edinburgh
Rennie Thomas 15 Yard heads Edinburgh
Ryrle Donald & Co Croft an righ Edinburgh
Scottish Brewery Co.  Gt. Junction st—,  Edinburgh
Usher & Cunningham 101 Cowgate Edinburgh
Usher James 71 Potter row Edinburgh
Young Richd South back of Canongate Edinburgh
Younger Wm. & Co.  Horse wynd, Canongate Edinburgh
Archibald Thomas New Mills road Dalkeith
Robinson William Back st. Dalkeith
Lorimer A. P.  132 High st Musselburgh
Whitelaw William High st Fisherrow 
Black Wm & Co. Devanha Brewery Aberdeen
Cadenhead, Barron & Co New Bridge Aberdeen
Cowie Alexander Virginia st Aberdeen
Duguid Mary Hardgate Aberdeen
Duthie Wm Holborn st Aberdeen
Gillcomston Brewery Co. Gilcomston Aberdeen
Gordon George & Co Ferry Hill Aberdeen
Hatt John Ligonier 47 Virginia st and Peacock's Close Aberdeen
Lawrence James Skene square Aberdeen
Livingston Peter Shuttle lane Aberdeen
McCulloch hugh (retail)  Maltmill Aberdeen
Masson John 82 Loch st Aberdeen
Sim Alexander & James 22 Loch st Aberdeen
Still Patrick South Bridge Aberdeen
Thom Robert King st Aberdeen
Wallace Andres Auchmull Aberdeen
Anderson Philip & Co
Hutchison Robert Charlotte st Peterhead
Mudle George Invernettle Peterhead
Crawford Catherine 29 High st Ayr
Cuthbart Jane, Main st Newton Ayr
Davidson Anne 72 High st Ayr
Guthrie Charles 40 High st Ayr
Watson and Brown Mill st Ayr
Paxton George Richard land Kilmarnock
Thomson George Grange st Kilmarnock
Elliot Edward Silver st Berwick
Pratt & Crossman Silver st Berwick
Sibbitt, Dickinson & Co. Tweemouth Berwick
Davidson John
Joppling Thomas 
Russell William
Ramsay John Blackbull st Dunse
White George Clock Mill Dunse
Whitelaw Robert Hay Market place Dunse
Gass and Hope, Annan Brewery Port st Annan
Corson George Irish st Dumfries
McBarney Thomas Galloway st, Maxwelltown  Dumfries
Morrison James Irish st Dumfries
Murray Robert, Old Brewery  Buccleugh st Dumfries
Shortridge James 61 Galloway st, Maxwelltown Dumfries
Whaley Richard White sands Dumfries
Young Alexander & James The College Elgin
Urquhart & McDonald Forres mills Forres
Taylor & Co. High st Anstruther
Mitchell John Bonargate Cupar
Philip John Bobber wynd Cupar
Thomson and Son Lady wynd Cupar
Auld Robert High st Dunfermline
Douglas John St. Margaret st Dunfermline
Stenhouse James Queen Ann st Dunfermline
Skinner Robert & James New town Falkland
Keay John
Patrick James
Robertson Andrew Kinghorn Kinghorn
Stocks John West bridge Kinghorn
Fergas Henry Links Kirkcaldy
Keddle John Links Kirkcaldy
Berwick David South st St. Andrews
Ireland Rea Argyle St. Andrews
Baillie John Market gate Arbroath
Harry George Maule st Arbroath
Lindsay John St. Vigean's Arbroath
Lyall David Newgate Arbroath
Mill William Spink st Arbroath
Sheriff George South Grimsby  Arbroath
Brown Jane East Haven Barrie
Crighton Alexander West Haven Barrie
Warden Robert Carnoustie Barrie
Baxter James North port brewery Brechin
Smith John Cadger wynd Brechin
Butchart Andrew 12 Seagate Dundee
Butchart Thomas McCosh's entry Dundee
Gilruth James Bonnet hill Dundee
Kinmond John Seagate Dundee
Miller David & Charles Perth road Dundee
Rattray Thomas Bell st Dundee
Sinclair Alexander Fenton's close Dundee
Ure Peter Hawk hill brewery  Dundee
Crichton Jeam King st Dundee
Easson Robert Bucklemakers wynd Dundee
Elder Andre 1 George's place Dundee
Elder Samuel Castle lane Dundee
Ferguson James Seagate Dundee
Low David St Clement's lane Dundee
Martin Alexander 130 Seagate Dundee
Matthew Janet Overgate Dundee
Miller James Park wynd Dundee
Ramsay David Scouringburn Dundee
Robertson Alexander Cowgate Dundee
Ross Donald Constable st Dundee
Waddel James Liff Dundee
Wedderspoon Blair Seagate Dundee
Whatton Helen 72 Seagate Dundee
Barry James Back wynd Forfar
Keay James High st Forfar
Milne James Back wynd Forfar
Mitchell David High st Forfar
Morris James Castle st Forfar
Potter William High st Forfar
Reid John & Peter Spout st Forfar
Stark David High st  Forfar
Montrose Brewery Company Academy place Montrose
Potter James Hill st Montrose
Ross William and Co.  Loch side Montrose
Stewart John Bridge st Montrose
Muckart John Ferry st  Montrose
Brown John Lamar st Dunbar
Dudgeon Ellis Belhaven brewery Dunbar
Martine John, Jun.  Sidegate Haddington
Shiells William West port Haddington
Walker John Nungate Haddington
Fowler John
Hislop Robert
Caledonian Brewery Company Haugh Inverness
Fraser Alexander & Co. Fraser st Inverness
Fraser Donald 8 Glebe st Inverness
Loban William Thornbush Inverness
Mculloch John Kinross Kinross
Morison Thomas Milnathort Kinross
Baird Hugh & Co. Gt.Canal Brewery Glasgow
Ballantine William 57 Crown st Glasgow
Connell E. Struthers st Glasgow
Dickson James 35 Tureen st Glasgow
Duncan John Port Dundas road Glasgow
Ferguson & Stevenson 72 Centre st Glasgow
Forrest George Clyde st,Anderston Glasgow
Gibson Matthew, Anderston brewery Warwick street Glasgow
Hedderwick A. 22 Buchan st Glasgow
Hedderwick John Watt, Adelphi brewery Govan street  Glasgow
Hunter J. & R.  23 Montrose st  Glasgow
Johnston James 23 & 25 Stirling st  Glasgow
McNiven & Johnston 49 Cowcaddens street Glasgow
Ramsay A. & J.  32 South Cobourg st Glasgow
Scott Wm. 1 Duncan st, Canning st  Glasgow
Stewart John Commercial road  Glasgow
Struthers Robert and Sons Greenhead brewery Glasgow
Tennent John and Robert Westpark, Duke street Glasgow
Towers J.C. & Co. (of Alloa)  1.5 Melville place Glasgow
Wilson John 3 Melville place  Glasgow
Hutchison Robert Wellgate Lanark
Murray & Kilgour North vennel Lanark
Armour Robert
Masterton John
Vallance Robert
Adamson James Tweed Green Peebles
Robertson Adam Cuddy Bridge Peebles
Scott John St. Michael's wynd Peebles
Mailler Joseph Auchterarder Auchterarder
Sharp Robert jun. Blackford Auchterarder
Thomson & Garbols Ruthven bank Auchterarder
McDougal John Mitchell st Crieff
Portreous David Coldwell Crieff
Menzies Jno. St.Catherine's brewery Perth
Morison James Canal st Perth
Scott Matthew Canal st Perth
Simpson James Canal st Perth
Taylor Thomas Bridge end Perth
Wright John & Co. 18 Methven st  Perth
Buchanan David & Co. Holmscroft Brewery  Greenock
Greenock Brewery Co. Nicholson st Greenock
Watt James & Co. Cartadyke Greenock
M'Dougal John East Line, Ferguslie Paisley
Middleton James, Laxwell brewery Millerston Paisley
Sacell Brewery Compy. Saucel Paisley
Finlayson Thomas Lower st Tain
McKenzie & Gallie Morangle Tain
Tulloch Amdrew Murray st Tain
Reid John & Co. Canongate Jedburgh
Wight Thomas High st Jedburgh
Nichol & Robertson Ednam Kelso
Aitken James & Co. New Market st Falkirk
Smith Robert High st Falkirk
Connal Ebenezer Port st Stirling
Anderon Samuel
Wilson Robert
Jackson Alexander
Howieson William West port Linlithgow
Philip Agnes 
Anderson William Airdrie Brewery Airdrie
George James Mills of Keith Keith
Finlayson Henry
Hewetson James Queen st Castle Douglas
McDonald Alexander
Lobban George Grant St Cullen
Hewetson George Devol's glen Port Glasgow
Scott Thomas
Watson Alexander Church st Portsoy
Kinnear Alexander Cowle Brewery Bridge of Cowle
Fraser Donald Church st Dingwall
Campbell Donald McCulloch's close Dingwall
Bertram Alexander North Berwick Brewery North Berwick
Pearson John Chapel lane Bathgate
McLaurin Ludovic
Cunningham William
Haldane John Buckholm side Galashiels
Manson Alex
Old Meldrum
Edington James
Scott James Pierhead Kirriemuir
Lowdon Isabella Skinner Hill Kirriemuir
Bell James
Irving John Bridge st Lockerbie
Henderson James Pulteney distillery Wick
Chalmers Walter
Ballingall Back st. Leven
Forrest James Greenhead Hamilton
Mackie Andrew St. Monance Pittenweem
Wardrop John Wallace st Galston
Scott William
Greenshield Alex St Germain st Catrine in Sorn
Wilson David
Haldane John Water row Selkirk
Rolland John Newtown, Westport Kincardine
Wood James High st Kirkintilloch
Laing Alexander High st Dumbarton
Gray David Irvine Brewery Irvine
Tyrie John High st Blairgowrie
Watt William Raise st Saltcoats
Bridge Andre Path-head Dysart
McDonald William
Greenfield Margaret
Borland John New st Beith
Moncur James Hill st Dunkeld
Hood James Strand st Stranraer
McKenzie Peter
Pigot and co.'s national commercial directory of the whole of Scotland, 1837