A visit to Černokostelecký brewery - *I organised a trip to Prague for the Brewery History Society last week*. Thanks to a suggestion from Max Bahnson, philosopher and fellow pisshead, Černoko...
13 hours ago
"MORE MILD BEER IS PROMISED
HULL brewers will be represented at a meeting of the Brewers' Society in London tomorrow, and of the Yorkshire Brewers' Association in Leeds on Friday, when they will discuss the Ministry of Food statement that the average strength of beer is to be reduced by 10 per cent.
No comment can be offered on this decision until after these meetings, the Hull Daily Mail was told today.
The Brewers' Society state that they will co-operate loyally in giving effect to the Food Minister's decision.
UP TO LIMIT
An official statement from the society reads: "This reduction will, in most cases, be carried out by brewing more mild beer at present strength and less bitter pale ale or stout. But in some, cases this may not be possible, and the strength of particular beers may have to be reduced to some extent."
The present change will restore probably less than half of the quantity of beer lost when the last cut in output was imposed on May 1.
"The shortage will continue, but different parts of the country will be differently affected. Breweries will continue to produce as much beer as they are permitted to brew, and distribute it as evenly and fairly as possible."
Hull Daily Mail - Wednesday 24 July 1946, page 1.
"Hops, however, has never thrived in Scotland. The soil and conditions are poor for hop production, so hops had to be imported often from England at high expense. As a result a variety of hop alternatives were traditionally used including spices, herbs and quassia. Later when hops were used, they were added only sparingly resulting in a distinctly malty character. In contrast to the South in England malt was heavily taxed and hops plentiful resulting in more highly hopped styles such as IPA."
"EVOLUTION AND ALE.
TUESDAY, APRIL 11th, 1922.
"The Kentucky Legislature has now before it a Bill to prohibit the teaching of Evolution in any State aided school, college, or university."— The Nation."
This, coming from the land of progress and freedom, is side-splitting. Some fifty — or is it sixty? —years ago a troublesome follow called Darwin published a book on Evolution. It caused a mighty fluttering amongst our grandfathers, but long, long ago the "pernicious doctrines" voiced by that great brain have passed into everyday life, and now opposers of the theory are classed with other small bodies of cranks, among whom may be included the gentlemen who sternly hold that the world is flat. All the investigations of modern science have only gone to prove how amazingly correct Charles Darwin was in his main facts.
The average man knows little Kentucky. He believes it is one of the Western States, somewhere near Tennessee, where rag-time comes from, but it is, incidently, even further from light than was popularly imagined.
If the Americans did not speak a language so closely resembling English, it might be more easy for us to understand them — at least we might make greater efforts. Is it, for instance, a general thing in America to have this fear of the awful doctrine of Evolution? It was generally understood that Professor Einstein suffered no great boycott when he explained his Theory on the other side of the Atlantic last summer. Kentucky must have been sleeping then. As an example of democracy, the United States seem singularly conservative. Although we have no authority for doing so, we say without much fear of contradiction that even Sir Frederick Banbury in this country would raise no fierce objection to Evolution being taught in English schools.
If Mark Twain were alive what a subject it would be for his pen! The best advice for Kentucky is to reintroduce a reliable brand of mild ale, and with it would probably go little breadth of outlook, and just a smack of toleration.
Hull Daily Mail - Tuesday 11 April 1922, page 4.
"A NEW LIGHT ALE
Palex is an extra light mild ale introduced Flower and Sons, Ltd., of Stratford-on- Avon. It comes as a boon to all those who have been searching for the ideal drink—a drink which has just the right soft, creamy flavour that is good for the health, gloriously satisfying and thirst-quenching and, at the same time, as light as a feather. The appeal of Palex is as varied as it is assured. After work, after play for luncheon, in the evening at home or during the day there is no better, cheaper, or more satisfying drink. It has been brewed with special care to suit athletes, sportsmen and sportswomen. You can buy Palex in all Flower's houses or from licensed grocers. Bottles only (not on draught) at 3s. per dozen small, or 5s. 6d. per dozen large."
Cheltenham Chronicle - Saturday 27 May 1933, page 1.
"Special 'Plane Flew Beer In
Isles of Scilly Hotel "Saved"
Island Air Services flew a "beer special" from the mainland to the Isles of Scilly yesterday afternoon when Holgate's Hotel ran out of supplies and rather than break their rule of "beer for all every night" a chartered special 'plane to bring it over.
Mr. Howard Pender, manager of Holgate's. told "The Western Morning News" last night:-
"Our policy has been to try to get a drink for working men and visitors every night.
"We usually get our supplies by steamer on Wednesday, but for some reason they missed the boat this week and realizing that there would be a gap unless something was done, Mr. Hilgrove Hill, proprietor of Island Air Services volunteered to bring over a supply in his monoplane.
COST MORE—BUT WORTH IT
"Arrangements were made at Penzance end to have a portion of our supplies sent from the station to The Land's End Airport and two barrels of mild and one of ale were flown over.
"The pilot could have brought more, but these barrels 6cwt., which was the maximum load for the 'plane.
"The beer will cost a little more but it will be worth it."
Western Morning News - Friday 19 September 1947, page 2.
"LOCAL BREWERS AND THE BEER POISONING SCARE.
PUBLIC ASSURANCES AS TO PURITY
It will be noted by our advertising columns that Wrexham brewers have taken occasion, consequent upon tbe scare as to the presence of arsenic in beer, to assure the public of the absolute freedom of their beers from all injurious or deleterious ingredients, and a glance at what each firm has to say must convince all that they take great care to put only a pure article on the market.
Mr J. A. Chadwick, of the Burton Brewery, says: "My ales and stout are brewed only from the finest and best materials, and are guaranteed absolutely pure," and this statement is backed up by a certificate from Mr Alfred N. Palmer, F.C.S., who states respecting two samples of the beer he examined, "That neither of them contains the faintest trace of arsenic."
The old-established and well-known firm of Messrs C. Bate and Son "guarantee their ales to be up to the high standard they have hitherto been, and they have been tested proof against any impurities." The firm add "that they have had no occasion to withdraw one single barrel of beer owing to any deleterious matter."
Messrs Beirne, of the Albion Brewery, submitted samples of their "bitter beer," "mild ale," and "best mild ale" to Messrs Norman Tate and Co., the well known analysts, of Liverpool, and the certificate of the firm shows that after having carefully examined the three samples they "find them all to be free from arsenic."
The Wrexham Lager Beer Company also submitted samples of their beer to Mr Granville H. Snarpe, F.C.S., the eminent analyst, and he certifies them to be "perfectly pure in composition and free from objectionable admixture." Mr Sharpe adds that special and searching tests were applied in order to ascertain whether any contamination by arsenic or other poisonous metal was present, but no trace of any such could be detected.
After these specific and verified statements there should surely be no apprehension as to the purity from poison of local beers of all descriptions."
Wrexham Advertiser - Saturday 15 December 1900, page 8.
DECISION OF RHONDDA VALLEY MINERS
A Rhondda Valley miners' meeting has decided to abstain from drinking beer until the present prices are reduced.
The beer boycott continues in the Liverpool district, and it is reported from various quarters that the price is being reduced. A few houses where the old prices still prevail are besieged.
According to a statement issued by the Brewers' Society, the cause of the rise of the price of beer may be explained as follows: The pre-war price of mild ale and porter was 2d per pint in London and most parts of the country. It is now 7d., and the trade claim that it cannot be supplied for less. For every 3.5 pints purchased by the public before the war and for every 2.5 pints purchased up to last month one pint only can now be supplied, so that, quite apart from all other reasons for raising the price, there is the absolute necessity to reduce consumption to that extent. The other reasons include: The increase since the war of the beer duty from 7s. 9d. to 25s. per barrel; the greatly enhanced cost and scarcity of all materials, labour, horsekeep, transport, coal; and the prohibition of all malting."
Coventry Evening Telegraph - Thursday 12 April 1917, page 2.
"PRICE OF BEER AND STOUT.
PROBABLE FIGURE FOR COVENTRY.
It was stated to-day in reference to the price of beer and stout that, far as London is concerned, the recommendation of the Central Protection Society is that for mild ale and porter the retailer should charge 3.5d half-pint, 7d. a pint, and 1s. 2d. a quart on and off licensed premises, no reduction being made for quantities. Mild ale and porter will be the standard articles brewed. As regards bitter and Burton ales and stouts, it is marked, the prices vary in accordance with the particular speciality of the brewers, and will be fixed by the local societies in the various districts this week. The South-East London district, which comprises Parliamentary Divisions of Bermondsey and Rotherhithe, has adopted the recommendation with regard to mild ale and porter, and has fixed the following prices: Bitter and Burton ales and stout: 6d. half-pint, 1s. a pint, and 2s. a quart. Mild and bitter, mild and Burton, and mild and stout: 5d. a half-pint, 10d. pint, and 1s. 8d. a quart.
In an interview with a representative of "The Midland Daily Telegraph" to-day Mr. Wm. Johnson, of Messrs. Johnson and Mason, said: So far as Coventry concerned, I may state that a meeting Birmingham on Monday last of the Brewers' Association and those interested in the trade it was decided sell one quality of beer and stout at 7d. per pint. This, it is believed, will be adopted in this city after a meeting of the trade this week. I have particularly urged in the interests of every "on" and "off" licence, both in the city and the country, continued Mr. Johnson, that the price should be sevenpence per pint for ale and stout, with a second quality of beer only, and of a lower gravity at fivepence per pint. It certainly ought to be understood that the working man engaged upon certain work that is not so remunerative as countless other occupations cannot afford to pay sevenpence for a pint of beer, and I have most strongly represented this fact before interested brewers, that the working man must have consideration in this matter. I yet have hopes that this view will recognised and dealt with as to prevent any discontent."
Coventry Evening Telegraph - Thursday 29 March 1917, page 2.
"ANALYSIS OF LONDON PORTER.
In an article in the Daily Telegraph, on a "Pint of Beer," by "Our Own Commissioner," there is given an analysis of seven pints of porter taken from the very lowest of the beer family - common vulgar fourpenny, The following is the report:-
April 29, 1871.
RESULTS OF ANALYSES OF EVEN SAMPLES OF PORTER,
Percentage of Real Alcohol by Weight Coculus Indicus, Picric Acid, or Copperas Common salt M. (Bermondsey) 5.25 Neither Yes T. (Shadwell) 4.5 Neither Yes O. (Spitalfields) 5.5 Neither Much H. (New Cut) 4.75 Neither Very much Q (Shoreditch) 4 Neither Yes F. (Whitechapel) 4.5 Neither Very much L. (Kent Street, Boro') 4 Neither A little
Adulterated porter is commonly three parts or less porter and one part water, the resulting weakness in quality being masked by the addition of colouring matter, brown sugar, and bitter drugs, one of which produces lethargic stupor. I am of opinion that these samples have not been so adulterated. (Signed) JOHN BROAD,
Pharmceutical and Practical Chemist.
It may be as well to mention that the above-named gentleman, to make assurance doubly sure, in a matter of such importance, submitted portions of each sample to Professor Attfield, of the Pharmaceutical College, whose return precisely agrees with Mr. Broad's."
Western Mail - Friday 05 May 1871, page 2.
"To make Buttered Ale. Take a quart of mild Ale, put it into, a sauce-pan, with some cloves, mace, a whole nutmeg, and sugar to your taste; set it over the fire, and let it boil five minutes; then take it off and put in a lump of butter, the size of a walnut, and let it stand to melt; then beat six eggs, leaving out sour whites, in a little cold Ale, and mix it with the warm Ale, and pour it in and out of the sauce-pan, till it is fine and smooth; then set it over the fire and heat it again, till it becomes thick and quite hot.—Send it to table with dry toast.
"The family director; or, Housekeeper's assistant" By Addison Ashburn, 1807, page 79.
"Dr. Kitchener's Receipt to make Gruel.—(No. 572.)
Ask those who are to eat it, if they like it thick or thin; if the latter, mix well together by degrees, in a pint basin, one table-spoonful of Oatmeal, with three of cold water;—if the former, use two spoonsful.
Have ready in a Stewpan, a pint of boiling water or milk, —pour this by degrees to the Oatmeal you have mixed,— return it into the Stewpan,—set it on the fire,—and let it boil for five minutes,—stirring it all the time to prevent the Oatmeal from burning at the bottom of the Stewpan,—skins and strain it through a Hair Sieve.
2d. To convert this into Caudle,—add a little Ale,— Wine,—or Brandy,—with Sugar,—and if the Bowels are disordered, a little Nutmeg or Ginger grated.
"The Cook's Oracle" by William Kitchiner, 1827, page 418.
21.—Q. What should be the diet of a wet nurse or of a mother who is suckling?
A. It is an usual practice to cram a wet nurse with food, and to give her strong ale to drink, to make good nourishment and plentiful milk! This practice is most absurd; for it either, by making the nurse feverish, makes the milk more sparing than usual, or it makes the milk gross and unwholesome. On the other hand, we should not run into an opposite extreme. The mother or wet nurse, by using those means most conducive to her own health, will best advance the interest of the infant. A wet nurse should live somewhat in the following way:—Let her have tea for her breakfast, with one or two slices of cold meat if her appetite demand it, but not otherwise. It is usual for wet nurses to make hearty luncheons: of this I do not approve. If they feel faint or low at eleven o'clock, let them have a tumbler of porter or mild fresh ale, with a piece of dry toast soaked in it. A nurse should not dine later than half-past one or two o'clock; she should eat for her dinner fresh mutton or beef, with a nice mealy potatoe and stale bread. Puddings, soups, gravies, high-seasoned dishes, salted meats, and green vegetables (unless it be, occasionally, a few asparagus heads, or brocoli, or cauliflower), should be carefully avoided, as they only tend to disorder the stomach, and deteriorate the milk. It is a common remark that "mothers who are suckling may eat any thing." I do not agree to this opinion. Can impure or improper food make pure and proper milk, or can impure or improper milk make good blood for an infant, and thus good health? The wet nurse may take a moderate quantity of good porter, or mild (but not old or strong) ale, with her dinner. Tea should be taken at half-past five or six, supper at nine; which should consist of a slice or two of cold meat, or cheese if she should prefer it, with half a pint of porter or mild ale: occasionally a basin of gruel may be taken with greater advantage. Hot and late suppers are most prejudicial to the mother or wet nurse, and, consequently, to the child. The wet nurse should be in bed every night by ten o'clock. It may be said I have been too minute and particular in my rules for a wet nurse; but when it is considered of what vital importance good milk is to the well-doing of an infant, in making him strong and robust, not only now, but as he grows up to manhood, I shall, I trust, be excused for my prolixity.
"Advice to mothers on the management of their offspring" By Pye Henry Chavasse, 1839, pages 35-36.
"To bottle Beer.—(No. 468.)
When the briskness and liveliness of malt liquors in the cask fail, and they become dead and vapid, which they generally do soon after they are tilted,—let them be Bottled.
Be careful to use clean and dried bottles; leave them unstopped for twelve hours, and then cork them as closely as possible with good and sound new Corks; put a bit of lump sugar as big as a nutmeg into each bottle: the Beer will be ripe, i. e. fine and sparkling, in about four or five weeks; if the weather is cold, to put it up, the day before it is drank, place it in a room where there is a Fire.
Remember there is a sediment, &c. at the bottom of the Bottles, which you must carefully avoid disturbing, — so pour it off at once, leaving a wine-glassful at the bottom.
If Beer becomes Hard or Stale, a few grains of Carbonate of Potash, added to it at the time it is drank, will correct it, and make Draught Beer as brisk as Bottled Ale."
"The Cook's Oracle" by William Kitchiner, 1827, pages 349-350.
"Scotch Hot Pint.—Grate a nutmeg into two quarts of mild ale, and bring it to the point of boiling. Mix a little cold ale with a considerable quantity of sugar and three eggs well beaten. Gradually mix the hot ale with the eggs, taking care that they do not curdle. Put in a half-pint of whisky, and bring it once more nearly to boil, and then briskly pour it from one vessel into another till it become smooth and bright.
Obs.-—This beverage, carried round in a bright copper tea-kettle, is the celebrated new-year's-morning "Het Pint" of Edinburgh and Glasgow. In Aberdeen, half-boiled sowens is used on the same festive occasion. The above is the national beverage now. A more refined composition is made by substituting white wine for ale, and brandy for whisky."
"The Cook and Housewife's Manual" by Christian Isobel Johnstone, 1828, page 452.
"Wassail-Bowl, a Centre Supper-Dish.—Crumble down as for Trifle a nice fresh cake (or use maccaroom, or other small biscuit) into a china punch-bowl or deep glass dish. Over this pour some sweet rich wine, as Malmsey Madeira, if wanted very rich, but raisin-wine will do. Sweeten this, and pour a wellseasoned rich custard over it. Strew nutmeg and grated sugar over it, and stick it over with sliced blanched almonds.
Obs.—This is, in fact, just a rich eating posset. A very good wassail-bowl may be made of mild ale well spiced and sweetened, and a plain rice-custard with few eggs."
"The Cook and Housewife's Manual" by Christian Isobel Johnstone, 1828, page 420.
"JUSTICE OF PEACE COURT,
A MALTSTER FINED £150.
A court of the Justices of the Peace was held on Tuesday - Sheriff Shirreff, and Mr Stenhouse, of Stevenson's Beath, on the bench. Mr George Ainslie, Maltster, Brucehaven, Limekilns, was placed at the bar, at the instance of Mr Turner, Superintendent of Excise, charged with having, on the 30th of Nov. last, removed 8 bushels of grain from a cistern, to a place not entered in the Excise Books. Mr Ainslie pleaded not guilty, and was defended by Mr Macbeth. Mr Darling, writer, appeared for the Inland Revenue. The case then went to proof.
Mr Baxter, Excise-officer, being sworn, deponed - I am an officer of the Excise. I know the defender; he is a maltster at Brucehaven, Limekilns, and has three malting houses, all numbered in the Excise books. I visited defender's premises on the 30th November last, about 7 o'clock in the morning, for the purpose of inspecting the premises. On entering I met Alexander Small, one of defender's men, inside the gate, he was carrying a four-bushel bag, apparently full. I asked him what he had got there? He replied, "Naething." I then observed Wm. Black, defender's foreman, coming along to the west of the boiling-house ; he was carrying a four-bushel bag full of something. Observing me, be turned quickly round and entered the boiling-house, and emptied the contents of the bag into a tub. I asked what he had got there. He then said, "Beasts' meat." Part of the grain was in the tub, and a portion remained in the bag. I then took a sample of the grain, and said to Black, "Recollect that's seized," and cautioned him not to meddle it. I then ran to No. 2 malt-house, knowing that grain was in the cistern. Black ran after me; I got in first. I found they had been robbing the cistern ; a hollow was in the side, and some grain taken away, and a shovel remained sticking in the hollow from which the grain had been removed. On the 28th, at mid-day, I had seen the barley in this cistern; it was then all level, and no hollow in it. The barley was covered with water, and should have remained 40 hours in the same condition. It ought, then, to have been removed to the couch frame in connection with the cistern. There was no barley in the frame at this time. I took a sample of the grain in the cistern, and compared it with the sample I took from Black's bag, and found them to be the same. Black then commenced to throw the grain into the couch frame, while I went off after Alexander Small. On meeting him, I asked him to show me the bag he was carrying. He promised to do so. He then showed me a bag full of birds' seed ; it was not the bag I had previously seen him carry. The first bag was wet ; the one he afterwards showed me being quite dry. I then went to No. 3 house, and found a young flore or casting from the cistern. I found the slanting edge all broken and trodden down, Small having emptied his bag on the top of it, and scattered it over the flore with his foot. At this stage of my survey, Mr Ainslie, the defender, came to me. I charged his men with removing grain from the cistern. He said, "I know nothing about it, having been in bed." He then said if I would pass it over he would put away his men; it would raise such a talk. He then said, "I'll go and see what Will Black says about it," and then left me. I then proceeded to finish my survey of the premises. I gauged the grain in the couch frame and found it 3 bushels more than at my last survey, that being 28 hours previous. This was not a fair increase, the swell ought fo have been greater. Witness then produced his survey books, which were examined by the Court.
Mr Macbeth then cross-examined Mr Baxter, but failed a to shake the testimony of the witness. Mr Brown, Supervisor, was then examined. He met the defender on the 31st Dec. last, who spoke to him regarding a paragraph that had appeared a few days previously in the Alloa Journal. The paragraph in question hinted that a brewer in the vicinity of Dunfermline had been tampering with the Excise laws. Mr Ainslie then said be intended to prosecute his men, and expected a letter about it that night from Mr Macbeth.
This being the evidence for the Crown, the Court adjourned till the following morning, to hear evidence for the defence.
The Court met on Wednesday - the Sheriff and Mr Stenhouse on the bench - when the following evidence was led for the defence:-
William Black, foreman to defender, being duly sworn, deponed - I remember putting barley to steep on the 27th of November last; I put 64 bushels into the cistern. I had given 24 hours' notice to the Excise. Mr Baxter gauged the cistern on the 28th November. I commenced to cast the cistern on Monday morning at 7 o'clock, the legal hour for that purpose. Small went to the cistern to cast the grain into the couch frame, and remarked that the barley was not thoroughly drained. I told him to make a hole in the barley above the couch frame. He did so. He then left for No. 2 loft and filled two bags - one full of birds' seed the other full of cummings or refuse. It took the bag of cummings and went to the door with it, and carried it to a platform in the barley house. I had no light there. I then met Mr Baxter, who asked what the bag contained. I said "Beasts' meat." He took a sample of it. We then went to No. 2 house and found the cistern the same as we had left it. I went into the cistern and commenced to cast the grain into the couch frame, Mr Baxter standing looking on. I then smoothed it for Mr Baxter taking the gauge of it. The cistern often gets choked up with grain, or dust, according to the quality of the material. I removed no grain from the cistern that morning.
Alex. Small, John Macleod, David Mollison, workmen at defender's establishment, corroborated the evidence of Wm. Black.
Mr Sturpton, manager of Well Park Brewery, Glasgow; Mr Tait McMillan, brewer, Alloa; Mr James Grant, manager, Glen Forth Distillery, South Queens ferry; were examined regarding the process of brewing, and the swell that wetted grain usually takes on. This was the evidence for the defence.
Mr Macbeth then addressed the Court for the defender, and was followed by Mr Darling for the Crown. The Sheriff then said - The bench having given the case a patient hearing, were of opinion that the defender was guilty. He then sentenced him to a fine of £150. On both days the Court was crowded, those engaged in the malting trade being well represented."
Dunfermline Saturday Press - Saturday 06 February 1864, page 2.
"THE MANUFACTURE OF LONDON PORTER.
Before a full bench magistrates in Dundee, John Blair, retailer of beer, Scouringburn, was charged with having in his possession 8.5 gallons of emgas in solution, the same being a preparation used as a substitute for malt, whereby he had rendered himself liable to a penalty of £200. Among the witnesses examined was Henry Burge, an analyst from Somerset House, who had analysed the substance in dispute, and found that it was a chemical composition, identical with a superior kind of molasses, admtted that it would be a very suitable substance for mixing with porter shortly before tapping the casks, or shortly before bottling. It would give it a "nice brisk head and a brilliant appearance." This sugar was extensively used among dealers in London for giving a head and brilliancy to their porter. The use of it was not permitted by the Excise, and during the last two years something like 500 prosecutions had taken place in London for using sugar and water for that purpose. If the preparation had been put into a cask which had previously contained porter, and where there was a little dry yeast, that would be sufficient to start fermentation. The Court found Blair guilty of having a solution of sugar in his possession as a substitute for malt, and imposed the modified penalty of £20, or one month's imprisonment. Notice of appeal was given."
Shields Daily Gazette - Wednesday 25 July 1883, page 3.
"Cool Tankard, or Beer Cup.—(No. 464.)
A quart of mild Ale, a glass of white Wine, one of Brandy, one of Capillaire, the juice of a Lemon, a roll of the Peel pared thin, Nutmeg grated at the top, a sprig of Borrage (or Balm,) and a bit of toasted Bread.
Cider Cup—(No. 465.)
Is the same,—only substituting Cider for Beer.
Keep grated Ginger and Nutmeg with a little fine dried Lemon Peel rubbed together in a mortar.
To make a quart of Flip:—Put the Ale on the fire to warm,—and beat up three or four Eggs with four ounces of moist Sugar, a tea-spoonful of grated Nutmeg or Ginger, and a quartern of good old Rum or Brandy. When the Ale is near to boil, put it into one pitcher, and the Rum and Eggs, &c. into another;—turn it from one pitcher to another till it is as smooth as Cream.
N.B. This quantity I styled One Yard of Flannel.
Obs.—The above is given in the words of the Publican who gave us the Receipt.
Tewahdiddle.—(No. 467.) A pint of Table Beer, (or Ale, if you intend it for a supplement to your "Night Cap,") a table-spoonful of Brandy, and a tea-spoonful of brown Sugar, or clarified Syrup (No. 475;) — a little grated Nutmeg or Ginger, may be added, and a roll of very thin cut Lemon Peel."
"The Cook's Oracle" by William Kitchiner, 1827, pages 348-349.
|Average OG 1939 - 1951|
|Brewers' Almanack 1955, p. 50|
|Robert Younger's beers in the 1940's and 1950's|
|1940||Pale Ale||Pale Ale||bottled||1008||1037.75||3.90||79.47%|
|1946||60/- Ale||Pale Ale||bottled||1008||1028.5||2.65||71.93%|
|1946||60/- Ale||Pale Ale||bottled||1011||1027.5||2.19||61.82%|
|1946||60/- Ale||Pale Ale||bottled||1006||1027.5||2.79||78.18%|
|1947||80/- Ale||Pale Ale||bottled||1010||1038.5||3.76||75.32%|
|1953||Sweet Stout||Stout||bottled||1017||1035.7||1 + 12||2.38||51.82%|
|1948||Strong Ale||Strong Ale||bottled||1015||1048||4.34||69.79%|
|1953||Strong Ale||Strong Ale||bottled||1017||1066.3||16 + 40||6.45||74.66%|
|Thomas Usher Gravity Book document TU/6/11 held at the Scottish Brewing Archive|
|Whitbread Gravity book held at the London Metropolitan Archives, document number LMA/4453/D/02/002|
Among the criminal abuses of the diffusion of knowledge which characterises the present times, the administration of opium, or its tincture, concealed in various vehicles, by the lower orders, with the most felonious purposes, holds a conspicuous place. An atrocious crime of this nature, says Mr. Lawrence in his Lectures, was brought specially under my notice, about a year ago, in examining, by desire of the magistrates of Glasgow, the contents of the stomach of a man who had fallen a victim to these murderous devices. Here the laudanum had been largely mixed with strong beer, and was sensible to the smell, in the liquor extracted by the stomach pump. One portion of that liquor, treated with acetate of lead, afforded an insoluble precipitate, from which an acid, strongly reddening permuriate of iron, was separated by the agency of the sulphuric. Another portion afforded directly, with a few drops of the permuriate of iron, an evident reddish brown tinge, very different from the drab or fawn coloured precipitate occasioned in strong beer of the same quality by the same salt of iron. Other experiments were made, which it is unnecessary to detail at present. The chemical facts, joined to a body of circumstantial evidence, led to a conviction of the guilty pair, a man and wife, who were accordingly executed.
When opium is dissolved in porter (good London), the detection of the drug becomes much more difficult than when it is dissolved in strong beer; for permuriate of iron produces with porter (lightened with an equal volume of water) nearly the same brownish colour, whether it be used as delivered by the brewer, or mixed with laudanum to the extent of thirty drops in two ounce measures. A very copious grey coloured precipitate is thrown down from London brown stout by solution of acetate of lead - nearly as copious, in fact, as from porter drugged, as above, with tincture of opium. And when these two precipitates, washed in filters are decomposed by a little dilute sulphuric acid, they afford two liquids, which strike nearly the same red brown tints with permuriate of iron. It is difficult to resist the evidence thus disclosed or the presence of opium in genuine London porter. Tincture of hop, diffused through water, becomes, with a few drops of permuriare of iron, a greenish liquid, quite different from the diluted porter treated in the same way. Porter becomes turbid when super-saturated with water of ammonia, and lets fall a brown sediment, which, collected and washed on a filter, bears some resemblance to impure morphia, but possesses a very remarkable peculiarity: it neither reddens with nitric acid, nor does it suffer morphia mixed with it to be thereby reddened, or at least the redness is merely momentary, and passes on the slightest heat into a light yellow shade. This precipitate I shall make the subject of future researches. Tincture of hops, which becomes slightly turbid on mixing with water, is rendered limpid by super-saturation with ammonia. It might be imagined that bone black (animal charcoal) would decolour porter, so that the agency of permuriate of iron on its supposed meconic acid might be made more manifest; but this process is at best fallacious; since bone-black boiled with a portion of dilute solution of opium, deprives it almost entirely of the power of affecting permuriate of iron ; while the corresponding portion receives from that salt a deep red brown colour."
Freeman's Journal - Wednesday 28 April 1830, page 4.
"ALE FOR INMATES.
Christmas fare for the inmates was discussed by the Colchester Board of Guardians on Tuesday.—Mr. Lord, moving that the usual quantity of beer be supplied to those inmates who preferred it, said his resolution was mild as the beer itself. (Laughter.) He wished ail the Guardians a Christmas — even those who did not agree with his resolution, and who preferred water or ginger-pop to beer.—Mr. Cater, seconding, said the small quantity of beer the inmates would get could never harm them.—Mrs. Fox hoped they would never allow the inmates any beer. There would fewer in the House but for the curse of drink. —Mr. Pritchard said beer was not necessary for human beings.—Mr. Osborn asked what quantity of beer was allowed at Christmas?—A Guardian: One pint.—Mr. Lord's resolution was carried by 12 votes to 5.—Mrs. Fox (looking at the Rev. T. S. Raffles) ; I am surprised the rev. gentleman did not vote against the resolution.—The Rev. T. S. Raffles: I am not a teetotaler, and I don't see why the poor people should not have glass if they want it. (Hear, hear.)
Chelmsford Chronicle - Friday 01 December 1922, page 2.
"YATES'S WATER-PROOF GLUE OR CEMENT.
Take of the best Irish glue, four ounces; and of isinglass, two ounces: these must be dissolved in mild ale (not stale), over a slow fire, in a common glue-kettle, to the consistence of strong glue; when one ounce and a half of wellboiled linseed oil must be gradually added, and the whole well incorporated together by stirring. To increase the. strength of the glue, more isinglass may be added.
This cement is applicable to the joints of wood, in every branch of manufacture; as also to joining earthenware, china, and glass ;—care being taken to press the parts well together, and to allow them sufficient time to set .
The cement, when cold, and made into cakes, assumes the appearance of India-rubber; and, like it, is elastic. It may at any time, when wanted for use, be dissolved, by a gentle heat, in any proper iron or glazed earthen-vessel; first putting into it a little mild ale, to prevent it from burning at the bottom of the vessel; and adding more ale, to bring it to a proper consistence for use. To cement leather together, for harness, bands for machinery, &c, having prepared the joints in the usual way, as if for sewing, apply the cement while hot, laying a weight upon each joint, as it is made: let them remain six hours before using, and the joints will then become nearly as firm as if made of one entire piece of leather. An excellent cement for stopping leaks in casks, &c. may be made by putting a little tow to the other ingredients. The Editor had this receipt from a Mr. H. Yates, in the year 1811."
"The Technical repository" by T. Gill, 1822, page 373.
Little City Girl's Kind Thought Rewarded !
Thoughtful Sonia Coad (aged 5), of 80, Beaumont-road, Plymouth, is a proud and happy little girl this Christmas.
On her daddy's suggestion she left a bottle of mild ale for Father Christmas, with the message that "no doubt he would be very tired and thirsty by the time he arrived at her chimney, and would he accept a present from her with her love."
Sonia's excitement over the toys Santa had brought was completely eclipsed when she saw the empty bottle and a signed photograph of Father Christmas himself thanking her for her kind thought. "
Western Morning News - Tuesday 30 December 1947, page 3.
"SHERIFF COURT, ALLOA-THURSDAY, EXAMINATION OF ANDREW ROY & SON, BREWERS, ALLOA.The losses seem to have mostly been incurred by the London agency. The size of the losses there is revealed by the valuations of the brewery's property. £9,017 was lost in London. Almost twice the value of the brewery itself, £5,802. How had they managed to lose so much money? Fraud is my guess.
At this Court yesterday Andrew Roy & Son, brewers, appeared for examination in bankruptcy before Sheriff Clark. The sederunt comprised Mr James Moir, banker, trustee; Mr McWatt, writer, agent in the sequestration; Mr James Younger, brewer; Mr Thomson, wood merchant; and Mr H. Baird, maltster, Glasgow, creditors.
Robert Macfarlane Roy, sole partner of the firm, examined by Mr McWatt, deponed - I am sole partner of the firm of Andrew Roy & Son. Previous to my joining the firm in 184S the business had been carried on since 1810 by my father, Mr Andrew Roy, in his own name. My father died in 1853, about seven years after I became his partner. The Alloa and Hutton Park Brewery works belonged to him, and were conveyed to his trustees by his deed of settlement. His trustees had an interest in the business from the time of his death till 1860. Their interest then ceased, and they had no longer any connection with the business. The whole works were acquired by me under an arrangement with my father's trustees. I was obliged to suspend payments in May last; and a private meeting of my creditors was held at Edinburgh on 2d June last, at which I made an offer of composition of 15s. per £1 on the debts due by the firm, payable by three instalments at three, six, and nine months. That offer was accepted by the creditors, and the first instalment fell due on 17th December last. I was unable to meet the first instalment. The reason why I could not meet that instalment was principally because I was disappointed of funds which I expected to receive from the business carried on by the firm in London under the management of Mr Andrew Roy. In June, when the private meeting of my creditors was held, there was due by the London agency £5055, arising from outstanding debts, a large portion of which I counted on getting previous to December. A considerable portion of that sum was collected by Mr Andrew Roy, but only a small portion of it reached me. Mr Andrew Roy, in December last, sent me a statement of his intromissions, from which it appeared that a large proportion of the money collected had been applied in paying salaries and expenses. The sum forwarded to me would not exceed £150. From reports sent to me by a London solicitor, there are now but about £400 of good debts. The business in London was carried on in Upper Thames Street, where the ale was sent to Mr Andrew Roy to be sold. The account transmitted to me by Mr Andrew Roy, to which I have referred, is amongst the papers which have been given up by me to the trustee. Full sets of books have been kept at the brewery since I became a partner, and previously. I also kept a private ledger showing the statements of profit and loss in the business, and also showing my private expenditure. A balance was regularly made each year on the 31st July. The books were regularly kept by clerks under my superintendence. They contain full and regular accounts of the whole transactions of the firm, and are capable of being brought to a proper balance. I have prepared and lodged with the trustee a full statement showing the firm's liabilities and assets. This was produced at the first meeting of creditors under the sequestration and considered. It gives (Ist) a list of debts due by the firm; (2d) list of assets; (3d) abstract state of the affairs of the firm; (4th) list of outstanding debt due to the firm; (5th) bills receivable; (6th) account of casks; (7th) statement of ale, malt, and hops on hand and (8th) statement of losses sustained by the firm. I have also produced states applicable to my own private affairs, consisting of (Ist) statement of heritable property and moveable effects belonging to me; and (2d) list of private debts owing to me; also a record of the heritable properties as required by the Act. These states are all correct to the best of my knowledge and belief. I am willing to give any other explanation as to these states if required by the trustee. The whole books and papers have been delivered to him. The abstract state of the firm's affairs show that the liabilities are £19,803 odds, and the assets, after the deduction of preferential claims, £8927 - thus showing a deficiency of £10,876. I account for this deficiency by bad debts sustained within the past three years. The chief loss has been in London under the successive agencies of Mr Alexr. Ford, Mr Patrick Robertson, and Mr Andrew Roy. The loss under Mr Ford's agency £2200, under Mr Robertson's £2620, and under Mr Andrew Roy's £4197 - amounting in all to £9017. Other losses were made in 1863-4 by John Orr, John Angus, and others in Glasgow, amounting to £1538, and losses under small accounts in different parts of the country, amounting to £1076 - making the total losses £11,631. Full details are given in my ledger. The different heritable properties mentioned in the state belong to me individually. They consist of the Alloa Brewery, Hutton Park Works, Hutton Park House, and Whins Road House. These have been valued by Mr Paterson, city valuator, Edinburgh, and Mr John Melvin, Alloa. The brewery and utensils are valued at £5802, Hutton Park Works, £2696; Hutton Park House, £1600; and Whins Road House, £450 - total, £10,548. The mortgages, amounting to £7345, 1s. 3d., leave an apparent reversion of £3202, 18s. 9d. My private expenditure might be £460 to £500 per annum. The whole states lodged by me with the trustee have since been submitted to a chartered accountant, appointed by the trustee, who has examined and compared them with the books.
Mr JAS. Moir, the trustee, stated that he had carefully examined the books, and had submitted them to an Edinburgh accountant. He had not yet received his report, but he had received word so far as to show that a full and fair statement had been submitted. He did not, therefore, consider it necessary to put any additional questions to the bankrupt. The statutory oath was then administered."
Caledonian Mercury - Friday 20 January 1865, page 2.
Andrew Roy and Son's Sequestration.- At a statutory meeting of the creditors of Andrew Roy and Son, brewers, held yesterday, the bankrupts' offer of composition was accepted. The Alloa and Hutton Park Brewery works will, therefore, continue to be carried on by the old firm."
Dunfermline Saturday Press - Saturday 28 January 1865, page 3.