Thursday, 26 November 2020

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The Druid's Rest

 More wartime pubs. But this time not a crime scene. Not even a real pub, as it's play set in a pub. A .light comedy. Though it was notable for one thing.

 A New Comedy by Emlyn Williams
"The Druid's Rest" Centres Around a Small Public House in the Heart of Wales

Emlyn Williams has chosen a small village pub as the setting for his new comedy presented by H. M. Tennent and Emile Littler at St. Martin's Theatre. The time is summer, early in this century. The play centres around the national passion for music and a boy's too-vivid imagination. The play will he seen by our men in the Middle East soon. Mr. Williams is taking out a company and will himself appear as Job Edwards, the Landlord, the part played in London by Roddy Hughes

Kate: "From now till four weeks to-day you're not to open any story-books at all"
Kate Edwards (Gladys Henson), alarmed at the fertile imagination of her son Tommos (Brynmor Thomas) which is getting the family into serious trouble, locks away the boy's books

The Man : “My name is Smith. Have you a room?”
Tommos is greeted by a stranger (Michael Shepley), icho interrupts the boy's reading of the newspaper report of “The Brides in the Bath” case

Smith: "And what shall I have to tell Him I've got on my mind?"
Sarah Jane: "Four naked women"
Encouraged by Tommos, everyone believes their visitor to be the murderer Smith. Sarah Jane Jehovah (Nuna Davey) tries to save his soul 

Job: "Now, now, I don't like to see you upset, Kate fach"
Job Edwards (Roddy Hughes), landlord of The Druid's Rest, has one passion his choir. It leads him into trouble with his wife

Right An old Coronation mug identifies Smith the stranger, as Lord Ffynnon. Beside Kate on the settle is the Tramp (Neil Porter): on the right Zachuriah Policeman (Lyn Evans), and behind, the Edwards' elder son Clan (Richard Burton)
The Tatler - Wednesday 23 February 1944, page 9.

 I'm sure you spitted it. The play was Richard Burton's debut stage performance.I wonder what became of him later?

 I was surprised to discover that the play was performed in London as recently as 2009. sis anyone see it?

Wednesday, 25 November 2020

Let's Brew Wednesday - 1868 William Younger No. 4 Ale Export

When William Younger first introduced their numbered Ales, they went from No. 1, the strongest, to No. 4. The baby of the bunch didn’t last that long. A decade after this beer was brewed, it had disappeared.

A feature of some Younger beers of this period is the complete absence of local ingredients, other than water and yeast. The malt is simply listed as “foreign”, while the hops are described as “Bohemian” and “Saaz”.

No. 4 is very heavily hopped with good quality, low alpha hops. Something which can have a magical effect. There’s also extremely heavy dry hopping. All those factors taken together imply that this beer might well have been allowed to age for a while before sale. I’d go for 3 to 6 months. Not too long, as it doesn’t really have the gravity to spend years maturing.

1868 William Younger No. 4 Ale Export
pale malt 15.75 lb 100.00%
Saaz 90 min 3.00 oz
Saaz 60 min 3.50 oz
Saaz 20 min 3.00 oz
Saaz dry hops 2.50 oz
OG 1068
FG 1022
ABV 6.09
Apparent attenuation 67.65%
IBU 84
Mash at 154º F
Sparge at 185º F
Boil time 120 minutes
pitching temp 59º F
Yeast WLP028 Edinburgh Ale

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Tuesday, 24 November 2020

More Chtistmas gift ideas

I mean my wonderful collection of 40-odd books. (Not sure of the real total number, but Om pretty sure it's 40 plus.)Which you can even get at a discount.

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A dodgy tailor

Yet more dodgy dealings in a wartime pub. This time it's fraud rather than theft.

Goods Not Delivered 

A STORY of ordered suits which did not materialize was related to the Portsmouth Magistrates to-day, when Samuel Goode (48), a tailor, of 55, Ingleby Road, Ilford, pleaded not guilty to charges of false pretences. 

He was accused of obtaining on November 15, November 22, and December 17, 1943, the sums of £10 and ten coupons, and £10 and £5 respectively from Stanley Sullivan by means of false pretences, and on a day in November, 1943, obtaining £14 from Albert Cass, and on a day in August, 1943, obtaining £5 and 30 coupons from Thomas O’Flynn, also by means of false pretences.

George Sullivan, of 60, Tredegar Road, Southsea, said he met Goode in a public-house at Eastney and accused told him he was working at Airspeeds but in his spare time he represented Goode’s, naval Tailors, of the Hard, Portsea. Accused produced a number of patterns and as a result he ordered a suit, and gave Goode £10 and ten coupons. Subsequently he gave Goode another £10 and £5 as an advance on an overcoat.

Albert Cass, licensee of the Highland public house, Eastney, said he had known Goode for 20 years. He believed he represented the firm of Goode's and ordered a suit for which he gave Goode £14 as an advance.

Thomas O’Flynn, a store clerk at Airspeed, of 30 Andover Road, Southsea, said Goode told him that he represented the firm of tailors at the Hard. Witness gave him £5 and 30 coupons and ordered a suit.

Ernest Goode, of Petersfleld, manager of Goode's, naval tailors, the Hard, Portsea, said accused was his brother, but he had had no connexion with the firm since 1934.

Detective Sergeant Strugnell said that when he charged the accused he replied, “ I have a complete answer to that.

Accused said he had never represented himself as having any connexion with the firm of Goode’s.

He was himself a practica1 tailor, and during the last 18 months he had supplied several people with suits. He had intended to supply the suits for which he had taken money, but was unable to do so as he had been ill since September. He Intended to pay back all the money he had taken.

Mr. A. Ainscough, for defence. said all the evidence was “public housy,” and rather unsatisfactory.

The Magistrates found the case proved, but ordered a week's adjournment to see what settlement, if any, could be arranged between the defendant and complainants, before passing sentence."
Portsmouth Evening News - Monday 24 January 1944, page 4. 

Was Goode intending to commit a fraud? Or did he just promise more than he could deliver? It's hard to say. But it seems a bit odd that he would try to con someone he had known for 20 years. Goode's brother does sound like he didn't want to have any connection with his brother. I wonder why he had left the family firm in 1934?

The sums involved are quite substantial for the time. £10 would get you 200 pints of Mild in 1944. Though the coupons - clothing ration coupons - could well have been worth as much, or even more. Clothing was strictly rationed during the war.

The magistrates were pretty lenient, giving Goode the chance to pay the duped punters back before passing sentence.


Monday, 23 November 2020

Yule Logs!!!!!!

Thanks to unemployment, I've had time this year to produce my traditional Christmas book of brewing logs. Unlike 2019, when to be perfectly honest, I couldn't be arsed.

 The same format as always: no words, just photos of brewing records. Just like every other year, I don't expect to sell fuck all copies. But, you know, I still like the put this nonsense out there.

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Disturbance in Public-House

Another crime story. But this time just a bunch of over-refreshed sailors getting a bit naughty.

Kirkcaldy Court Sequel

Evidence was led Kirkcaldy Police Court on Thursday in the case in which six navymen were charged with having 1) on 6/5/44, within a public-house shouted and bawled, cursed and swore, used lilthy language, and conducted themselves in a drunken and disorderly manner; and (2) at the same lime, o, the same date and in the same public-house, wilfully and maliciously broke a glass panel, valued at 10/-,

The first witness for the prosecution, George Smith Anderson, publican, Townsend Place, Kirkcaldy, stated that he carried on business at Rose street. On the night in question the accused entered the public bar and asked for drinks. He refused them, however, as he thought that they had had too much already. One of the accused then banged tray down on the counter and demanded six beers. He asked them leave the premises, but they replied by asking for more drinks. They then began to curse and swear and use filthy language, remarking that they were fighting for him. They then left, but returned several minutes later to the lounge and tried to force their way behind the bar. They were again refused drinks and told to leave. They went out, but as they left the door leading into Rose Street, he heard the sound of breaking glass. He went to see what had happened and found that the glass panel in the door had been smashed. There had been no one else entering or leaving premises at that time. He looked outside and saw the accused running up Rose Street, towards the High Street. He phoned for the police, and when, the constable arrived and was given a description of the accused, said that he had seen several lads on the High Street, bearing that description. The accused were later arrested, and he went to the police station later that night to identify them.

George Wilson, barman. 51 Market Street, Kirkcaldy, who was behind the bar when the accused the public-house, said that he did not think they were drunk. They were in rather a rowdy mood. They asked to be supplied with drinks, but they were trfused and began to curse and swear. They went out, but came back again and went into the lounge, but were again told they would not be served. They again went out and as they were leaving he heard the sound of breaking glass and found that the glass panel of the door bad been smashed.

James Gordon Barclay, King Street, Kirkcaldy, and David Campbell, 29 Simpson Street, Kirkcaldy who were present at the time corroborated the previous witnesses’ statements as to the condition of the accused. 

Constable Walker, who was on the High Street the night in question, said that he was informed of a complaint against some young lads for a breach the peace om Anderson’s premises. He obtained a description of them and later found them on the High Street and took them to the police station, where they were later identified by Anderson and Wilson.

In reply to Mr David Usher, Burgh Prosecutor, Constable Walker said that when saw the accused on the High Street, they were under the influence of drink and very noisy. 

Three of the accused entered the witness-box, but while they admitted being drunk, then denied used filthy language. The glass panel had been broken in a mistake. 

A naval officer, who appeared on behalf of the accused, said that this was their first offence, and although they were a bit energetic, he knew them to be very well behaved. He hoped that the fact that they likely to be called away at any moment would be taken into consideration.

Mr Usher corroborated the officer's statement to the extent that this was their first offence, and added that he thought they had been Just a little too boisterous during their time off. 

In finding the accused guilty as charged, Bailie Fleming said that he had taken into account what had been said in their favour, and imposed a modified fine of 5/- on each.
Fife Free Press, & Kirkcaldy Guardian - Saturday 13 May, page 2.

A 5'- fine was basically a slap on the wrist. About the same as the price of 5 pints on Mild in 1944.

Love the description of the sailors as being "a bit energetic". It seems like the court went easy on them because they were likely to be sent into action at any moment. I can imagine how stressful that must have been.

Sunday, 22 November 2020

Boys in Public House

A quick follow-up to today's earlier post about underage girls drinking. Where I wondered if boys would have been treated the same way. The answer is, yes. At least in this case:

"Two sixteen-year-old lads were each fined 10s at Dundee Juvenile Police Court to-day, when they admitted consuming in a public house 2 pints of beer and two quarter gills of whisky. "
Dundee Evening Telegraph - Saturday 15 January 1944, page 2.

The boys were both younger and drank considerably more than the girls. They were fined, but not put on probation. Mmm.

I'll see if I can find more cases of underage drinking in the archives.

Girls in Public House

This is such a weird case. And I can't imagine that it would have been treated in the same way in my youth. Ir today, for that matter.

To put this into context, according to The Pub and the People, there was almost no underage drinking pre-war.

"Girls in Public House

TWO 17-years-old girls, Dorothy Elizabeth White, milk bar attendant, 2, James Street, Rugby, and Sybil Georgina Humphreys, coil winder, 14, Maple Grove, Rugby, were summoned at Rugby on Wednesday, before Alderman C. W. Browning, M.B.E. (in the chair), and Mrs. E. D. Miller, O.B.E., for purchasing liquor for consumption on licensed premises whilst being under age 18. 

Both pleaded guilty. 

P.S. Sutton said he went to the public bar of the Saracen's Head, and saw the two defendants, together with another girl, at a table near the door. Each girl had a partly-filled half-pint glass of mild beer in front of her. He questioned defendants, who said their were between 17 and 18. He told them they were committing an offence and asked for an explanation, and Humphreys said "I thought it would all right have a shandy, but after I had had drink Dorothy said it was beer and not shandy." White said she thought it would be all right to have a shandy, and she bought the drinks, but there was no lemonade so they had beer. Witness ascertained that the drinks were served by the wife of the licensee, who thought the girls were over 18. He also ascertained that each girl paid for her own drink, and White took the money to the counter. 

Superintendent Wood said nothing was known against either of the girls. 

The mother of Humphreys said she would like a little supervision for her daughter, who was easily led. The girl’s morals were all right, but she thought she could come on at what hour she chose at night. 

The Chairman and the Bench considered this type of case very serious. Defendants were placed on probation for 6 months, and were ordered to pay the costs of 4/- each. 

Another girl, aged 15 3/4 years, pleaded guilty to a similar offence at the same time and place and was placed on probation for 6 months, and ordered to pay the costs of 4/-.

P.C. Sutton said the girl said in explanation "I understood it would be all right yo go in and have a shandy. I don't know the difference between shandy and beer." 

Superintendent Wood said nothing was known against the girl, but the police regarded these offences as serious.

The girl told the Bench she was sorry. It was about the second occasion on which she had been in a public house.

The girl's father said he was astonished to hear about the case. His daughter had not been brought up that way, and he did think her brothers and sisters in the Forces either smoked or drank. 

The Chairman said the Bench took a rather serious view of the case.
Rugby Advertiser - Friday 28 January 1944, page 5.

The older girls were just a few months under age,  but were put on probation. For drinking a half of Mild. It seems way over the top. Would it have been considered so serious had they been boys? I think not. 

The statement "nothing was known against either of the girls" is revealing and is why I think the police found it a serious matter. The underlying concern appears to me that the girls were prostitutes. 

It's interesting that the licensee wasn't prosecuted. That's what would happen today and the girls would be just told off.

On top of it all, a WW II Mild could well have been under 3% ABV. Hardly any stronger than shandy. A half was wasn't going to get you anything like pissed.

Saturday, 21 November 2020

Let's brew - 1942 William Younger XXP

The first half of 1842 was a crazy time at William Younger. Multiple changes were made to the ingredients, gravity and process of their beers. Not just from month to month, but sometimes from week to week.

This beer exemplifies a specific phase in the evolution of Younger’s recipes. When they were playing around with multiple different adjuncts. Grits were on their way out, but were still present in some beers. There was still some rice kicking around, though flaked barley was becoming more prevalent.

Barley also came in another couple of forms: ground and chit. The former is, I assume, simply raw barley ground up. Which must be the simplest way to use unmalted barley, requiring less energy and manpower than flakes.

The gravity is 9º on pre-war. Leaving it pretty damn watery, at only a little over 3% ABV. The boiling times for the two worts have also been reduced from 105 and 120 minutes, to 75 and 105 minutes.

At least the Kent employed hops were pretty fresh, all coming from the most recent, 1941, harvest. It’s just that there were bugger all of them, leaving XXP with a puny 10 (calculated) IBUs.

This being a draught beer, it was most likely coloured up to a variety if shades at racking time. Though a little may have escaped with the colour as brewed.

1942 William Younger XXP
pale malt 7.00 lb 87.50%
ground barley 1.00 lb 12.50%
Fuggles 75 min 0.50 oz
Fuggles 30 min 0.25 oz
OG 1033
FG 1008
ABV 3.31
Apparent attenuation 75.76%
IBU 10
SRM 3.5
Mash at 153º F
Sparge at 160º F
Boil time 75 minutes
pitching temp 61º F
Yeast WLP028 Edinburgh Ale


Friday, 20 November 2020

AA for the stranded time traveller

Emergency recovery service for stranded time travellers - a sort of insurance.

Raw material costs in WW II

There was a big increase in the price of both malt and hops, unsurprisingly, over the course of the war. If Barclay Perkins is typical, this had the effect of raising the percentage of the cost of raw materials relative to the retail price.

In 1939, before the war began, the cost of the malt, adjunct and sugar used in the brewing of XX came to just over 7% of the retail price. Especially considering that the tax paid was slightly over 2d per pint. Or around a third of the 6d public bar price.

The “XX share” column is there because the brew was a parti-gyle with X, Barclay Perkins Ordinary Mild. There was rather more of that brewed than XX, hence the latter’s share is only around a third of the total.

The situation was very different in 1945. The share of raw materials had more than doubled to just over 15%. While the tax paid had leapt to 7.5d per pint – almost two-thirds of the price public bar punters paid.  Ever since, a huge percentage of the retail price of beer in the UK has been made up of tax. Whereas before WW I tax, was only around 10% of the price. Those lucky Edwardians.

21st June 1939 Barclay Perkins XX
malt.hops qtrs/cwts price total XX share
amber malt 4 51.5 206 79.96
crystal malt 6 46.5 279 108.30
Californian pale malt 19 47 893 346.63
Hama pale malt 10 42.5 425 164.97
mild malt 33 50 1650 640.47
SA malt 17 49 833 323.34
maize 17 36 612 237.55
No. 3 invert sugar 15 42 630 244.54
MK Fuggles 1938 2.36 196 462 179.33
MK Fuggles 1938 2.32 197 457.32 177.51
MK Fuggles 1937 2.38 181 431.49 167.49
total     6878.81 2670.09
OG 1044.8      
barrels brewed 260.25      
cost per pint 0.43      
retail price per pint (d) 6      
% raw materials 7.12%      
Barclay Perkins brewing record held at the London Metropolitan Archives, document number ACC/2305/01/623.

13th July 1945 Barclay Perkins XX
malt.hops qtrs/cwts price total XX share
amber malt 4 161 644 315.64
crystal malt 6 146 876 429.35
SA malt 17 142 2414 1183.15
mild malt 33 142 4686 2296.71
PA malt 17 152 2584 1266.47
flaked barley 17 110 1870 916.53
No. 3 invert sugar 15 99 1485 727.83
MK Fuggles 1943 0.61 385 233.75 114.57
MK Fuggles 1943 0.78 385 299.06 146.58
MK Fuggles 1941 0.78 333 258.67 126.78
total     15350.48 7523.61
OG 1035.4      
barrels brewed 172.75      
cost per pint 1.81      
retail price per pint (d) 12      
% raw materials 15.12%      
Barclay Perkins Circular Letters held at the London Metropolitan Archives, document number ACC/2305/01/521/1.




Thursday, 19 November 2020

Public House Theft

You've probably already guessed that this is another crime posts. This time featuring a rather nasty character.

"Public House Theft
North Shields Seaman Gets
Four Months’ Hard Labour

"William Dominic Talbot Welsh (25). seaman, of 26 Washington Terrace, North Shields, appeared on remand before the magistrates at Tynemouth Police Court today charged with breaking and entering between April 10 and 11 the Artillery Arms public house in Albion Road. North Shields, and stealing £10 belonging to James Henry Tuck.

At the request of Insp. J. J. Scott, the Bench allowed the charge to be reduced to one of theft to enable the case to be dealt with summarily. Accused pleaded guilty to stealing the money.

The chairman (Aid. R. Middlemiss) said accused had a very bad record, and he would be sent to prison for four months with hard labour.

William Falconer, of Marine Terrace. North Shields, manager of the Artillery Arms, said at 11 15 p.m. on April 10 he left the premises securely fastened up. and when he returned at 8 20 am. the following morning he found they had been broken into, the cash register smashed and the sum of £10 stolen.

Det. Darling said he found that entrance had been gamed by climbing the backyard wall and breaking a window at the rear.

Following inquiries on May 1, he arrested accused in Saville Street, took him to the .Central Police Station and charged him with the breaking and entering. He replied, "I did not do it. That is all."

Inspector Scott said this was accused’s 24th appearance. He was a native of North Shields. In 1931 he was bound over at the Juvenile Court for 12 months and placed on probation for larceny, in 1932 he received six strokes of the birch for stealing, and in 1933 he was sent to an approved school for larceny.

He went to sea in 1937 and was called up for service in the R N.R. after the outbreak of war, but was discharged in 1943 on condition that he returned to the Merchant Navy.

In January last he was charged with shopbreaking and stealing ladies costumes, dresses etc., to the value of £190 This charge was reduced to larceny and he was sent to prison for three months with hard labour.

He was released from prison on March 22. His other offences included five charges o' drunkenness, three of assaulting the police and three of being an absentee from the Navy."
Shields Daily News - Tuesday 09 May 1944, page 5.

 That's quite some record. 24 court appearances at age 25 is impressive. And a whole variety of offences. Theft, violence, drunkenness and desertion. He started at a young age, too: 12.

I wonder if the police just went around to Welsh's place when a burglary was reported? One-man crime wave that he was.

Sounds like the navy was glad to be rid of him. I'd have way preferred to being in the Royal Navy to the merchant navy. Far safer. Who would want to be on an Arctic convoy? 

The Artillery Arms no linger exists. The premises are currently a curry house. There is still a pub,  Odfellows, a little further down Albion Road.

Wednesday, 18 November 2020

The perfect Christmas gift for home brewers

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Let's Brew Wednesday - 1940 William Younger XXP Btlg

A little thing like a global conflict didn’t deter Younger from continuing to brew a baffling array of Pale Ales. One being the bottling version of XXP.

The OG is down 2º from the previous year. And the cuts in strength weren’t going to stop these. At this point it’s looking very much like. I’ve dropped the FG by 3º from the one listed in the brewing record, as it’s a cleansing rather than a racking gravity.

In the grist, the big change is the addition of flaked rice. The result of which is a reduction in the proportion of pale malt. I’m slightly surprised that they still had any stocks of grits left, as imports of maize had been cut off for a year. Younger was a bit unusual when it came to adjuncts, as you’ll see when we get to 1942. The year they used a ridiculous selection of different ones.

As usual, the hops were all from Kent, about a quarter from the 1939 harvest and the rest from 1938.

Don’t pat too much attention to the colour. The one listed is as brewed. In the glass, it would probably have been darker, given Scottish brewers’ enthusiasm for colouring up beer with caramel.

1940 William Younger XXP Btlg
pale malt 5.50 lb 62.86%
flaked rice 1.75 lb 20.00%
grits 1.50 lb 17.14%
Fuggles 105 min 0.75 oz
Fuggles 30 min 0.50 oz
Goldings dry hops 0.125 oz
OG 1038
FG 1011
ABV 3.57
Apparent attenuation 71.05%
IBU 16
Mash at 152º F
Sparge at 160º F
Boil time 105 minutes
pitching temp 61º F
Yeast WLP028 Edinburgh Ale



Tuesday, 17 November 2020

Maize adjuncts in WW II

Flaked maize
The brewer’s favourite adjunct soon had to be dropped, I assume for pure supply reasons. Maize not being grown in the UK at the time, it had to be imported. Which was always going to be problematic, when there were other priorities for scarce transatlantic transport.

Almost immediately following the outbreak of war, there were restrictions on the raw materials available to brewers.

"At the outbreak of war every brewer realised that he would be forced to make drastic alterations in the composition of his grist, for he was forbidden to use flaked maize, future supplies of barley from Central Europe was cut off, while available supplies of Californian malt were materially reduced and in some cases ceased entirely while there was a possibility that sugar would be rationed.

It is probable that flaked maize has been used more from the view of economy than anything else, and its effect on the composition of the wort is hardly of sufficient importance to present any difficulty in replacing it. Flaked rice in limited amount is still available, however, and can easily replace flaked maize although it is quite possible that it may be restricted in the future."
Journal of the Institute of Brewing Volume 46, Issue 4, August 1940, page 274.

Flaked maize disappeared in 1940, initially replaced by flaked rice and later by flaked barley. It only made a reappearance in the early 1950s, when it quickly regained its pre-war position as brewers’ favourite adjunct.

A few brewers preferred grist over flaked maize, though this this was definitely the exception. Presumably because an extra piece of equipment – a cereal cooker – was required.

William Younger of Edinburgh was an enthusiastic user of grits. It often made up over 40% of their grists. Barclay Perkins also used grits, but only in some of their Lagers. Never in their other beers.

Unlike flaked maize, grits didn’t disappear from brewing records in 1940. They hung around until early 1942 in William Younger’s brewing records.  Though they were then definitively dropped by the brewer. Once the most enthusiastic user of grits, William Younger never returned to them. Preferring, when maize became available again in 1949, to use them in flaked form, like everyone else.

Monday, 16 November 2020

More pub crime

In my series on WW II pub crimes, here's one where it definitely was the landlord who was up to no good.

Why have I started this series? Because I'm in a lazy mood and can't be arsed to write something technical.

You quite often to have to do some reading between the lines in these sparse reports about what was really going on.

Portsea Manager Fined

UNLAWFUL possession of public stores by the manager of a Portsmouth public-house alleged at the Portsmouth Magistrates' Court on Wednesday.

Defendant was James Oatley, of the Ship Anson public house, The Hard, Portsea, and he was summoned for having in his possession a table cloth, two hand towels, two bath towels, a linen mattress case, three "C " gas masks, a 2 lb. tin of marmalade, a 2 lb. ton of blackcurrant jam, two 2 lb. tins of suet, and 24 lbs. of tea, valued together at £15 7s. 5d., contrary to the Public Stores Act, and also having in his possession a sailor's blue serge suit and a sailor's duck suit, valued together at £2 0s. 5d., contrary to Seaman's Clothing Act. Detective Inspector Bray said on March 7 he went to the Ship Anson public house where, after a conversation, Oatley handed him 24 lbs. of tea. Within an hour or two witness obtained a search warrant and searched Oatley's premises. Detective Constable Kendal said when asked where he got the marmalade, jam and suet Ostley replied, "Mum bought those." 

Sergeant Heale said Oatley told him the linen articles had "been here a number of years," and he told Detective Hall the gas masks "have been here a long time." Oatley, in evidence, said he had never been in trouble before. His public-house was just opposite the Dockyard and he had a lot of service men as customers. They sometimes left things which they claimed afterwards. Regarding the parcels, on March 7, he did not hand them back immediately as Det. Insp. Bray asked for white parcels and the parcels in question were grey. The gas masks were left with him during the period of blitzes. 

Iris Oatley daughter of defendant, said the sailor's clothing were left with her by a Fighting French sailor who  was courting her. 

The magistrates dismissed the summonses relating to the possession of sailor's clothing and gas masks, but on the other summonses Oatley was lined £5."
Hampshire Telegraph - Friday 24 March 1944, page 14. 

The gist is Oatley had large packages of rationed food which I assumed were identifiable as government property. Presumably for use in canteens. And also rationed textiles.

What about the parcels? Reference is made to them but there's no explanation as to what they were and why Det. Insp. Bray wanted them.

It sounds like they had got wind of Oatley selling items on the black market and had sent Bray there to trap Oatley.

The stuff with the sailor's uniforms is just weird. Why would the French sailor leave them with Oatley's daughter, even if they were courting. And why would he want spare gas masks?

Presumably worker in the dockyard had pinched the items and swapped them for alcohol with Oatley.

Oatley was running a great risk. Any sort of criminal activity was used by magistrates as a reason for refusing a licence.

Sunday, 15 November 2020

Sunday afternoon scene in a public house

You bump onto some odd stuff idf you search for "public house" in the newspaper archives. Mostly involcing a crime of some sort.

19th century reports are the most gruesome. Regularly starting off with a few jars in the vaults with a couple of strangers and ending with several dismembered bodies.

This one features a little violence, but nothing too horrible. It's just a weird story, where I can't really make out what was going on. See wht you think.

"Colne Licensee Assaulted

Summoned at Colne Magistrates' Court Monday for assaulting Joseph Albert Swift, landlord of the Hargreaves Arms, and his wife, Catherine Swift, William Whalley (52}, Naze Edge Farm, Colne, was fined £3 and costs in the first ease, thr second being dismissed. 

Mr. Ogden appeared for the complainants and defendant was represented Mr. Waddington. Mr. Ogden said that on Sunday, November 19th. the defendant, with two other men, was having‘drinks at the bar and whilst in conversation Mr. Swift noticed some Treasury notes lying the floor. He picked them up and asked the three men if they had lost any money. Two of the men, Mr. Metcalfe and Mr. Gill, both said the money did not belong to them, and it was alleged that Whalley remarked: “Put it in your pocket; if find any money it mine." Mr. Swift told him not be stupid and to feel if had lost any, but he did not go anything. 

Some time later, continued Mr. Ogden, the defendant retired to the rear of the premises and in the meantime Mr. Swift again noticed some Treasury notes lying the floor. He questioned the other two and said the joke was being carried too far. When Whalley returned, Mr. Swift asked him to feel his pockets as he had found some more money. Whalley is alleged have replied. "Shove them in your pocket and don't be a --- fool.” Swift said he was not trying be funny, but wanted the defendant to have the money if it belonged to him. The men, however, drank up and went out and as they did so Mr. Swift said: ” Don't forget; I have some money belonging to one of you.” 

About twenty minutes later there was knock at the door. Mr. Gill was the door and he said that Whalley was at the rear of the premises. Mr. Swift went out and Whalley said : I have come for money.'’ Asked how much had lost, he replied "£l5 or more.” Mr. Swift said there was only £ll, whereupon Whatley called him a liar and said wanted £l5 or hr would fetch the police. Mr. Swift said himself would hand the money over to the police and told Whalley to leave the premises. When they got to the door it was alleged that Whalley turned round and hit Mr. Swift a severe blow in the face, knocking out tooth, and when Mrs. Swift tried to get between them it was alleged that Whalley struck her a blow in the face and kicked her. 

Mr. Swift telephoned to the police, proceeded Mr. Ogden, and in due course Sergeant Wignall and P.C. Atherton arrived. Mr. Swift was trying to carry out his licensee and, realising their might some difficulty, he did all he could to trace the ownership of the money. He had been the licensee for 14 years without complaint and he brought the proceedings at the instigation of the police, added Mr. Ogden. 

The licensee gave evidence bearing out Mr. Ogden's statement. He said that when he found the first notes he mentioned it to the three men. Metcalfe said he had only 10s. when he came into the house, it did not belong to him, and Mr. Gill looked in his wallet and said it was not his. Defendant made use of obscene expression, saying findings were keepings, and told witness to put the money in his pocket. He told defendant put his hand in his pocket to see if had lost anything. Whalley had gone to the rear when the second lot of notes were picked up and when Whalley returned witness said : "What about this money; I have found some more." Whalley replied : "I have told you what to do with it; shove it in your pocket.” Witness said : “It is obviously yours,” but Whalley told the others to drink up, saying they were going, which thei shortly did. 


Describing what happened when Whalley returned to the hotel, Mr. Swift said defendant, when asked how much money there was, said it was £l5 or more. Witness told him there was only £ll and that he would hand the money over to the police for them to establish ownership. They went together to the front door and defendant turned round and struck him violent blow in the mouth, knocking out a tooth. Mrs. Swift interfered and Whalley struck her a blow on the jaw and kicked her on the right leg. The police were sent for and it was on their advice that he took out a summons.

Cross-examined Mr. Waddington, the landlord said he did not know that as result of an injury in the last war Whalley had only one ear drum. 

Mr. Waddinpton: I suggest he did not say anything when you first saw some notes: —Yes he did; he told to shove them in my pocket. 

In answer to further questions, witness denied that he called Whalley a liar and that he did not think he was worth €l5. He also denied saying "Get out of that ---- door." 

Mr. Waddington: Did you twist his arm up his back and did Mrs. Swift hit him in the left eye? —Not at all. 

Have you bragged about your proficiency in chucking people out of your house? — No, on the contrary, there has never been any trouble before. 

Witness agreed that when the police came the defendant told the Sergeant he had approximately €l6 and that the Sergeant counted £ll. 

Evidence was given by Mrs. Swift in corroboration of her husband’s statement. She said that she had had two operations on her right leg and since defendant’s assault on her she had had lot of pain and could not I sleep at night.

Questioned by Mr. Waddington, she denied that it was she and her husband who attached Mr. Whalley first.

Sedgwick Metcalfe spoke of the landlord finding the notes, but said he did not remember whether Whalley asked answered or not when Mr. Swift asked if he had lost any money.

Answering Mr. Waddington, he said he did not think Whalley realised he had lost any money when he left.

Sergeat Wignall spoke to being sent to  the Hargreaves Arms in company with P.C. Atherton in response to a telephone call from the landlord. He gave evidence to what Mr. Swift had told him regarding the alleged assault on the landlord and his wife. Defendant was present, and when witness counted the money handed to him by Mr. Swift he found there was £ll, which he prevailed upon defendant to take. Whalley said he was sorry about havng struck Mrs. Swift, and as the assault on the landlord he remarked: " We all lose our tempers now and again."

PC. Atherton corrobornted Sergeant Wignall’s evidence.

For the defendant. Mr. Waddington asked the magiatrates whether they could believe the complainants’ story. Could they believe that a man who lst a considerable amount money and who had really been told about it would go out of a house without having looked in his pocket and then return in a quarter of an hour? Defendant alleged that the complainants were trying to “chuck” him out of the house without his money. 

Giving evidence on his own behalf, defendant said Mr. Gill, licensee of the Commercial Hotel, Gisburn. called at his house and, having regard to the business they wanted to transact, they went to see the witness Metcalfe. 

Defendant said he had £l6 when he left his house and he carried it in front pocket of his trousers. During the visit to the Hargreaves Arms he paid for round of drinks and pulled the money out of this pocket. While he was there nothing was said as far he knew about money being found on the floor. Mr. Swift did pick up a cigarette packet and said. "Have you lost something?” and witness replied, "If that is all I have lost you cap keep it.” He left the house in Gill's car. and when he got little distance he had occasion to put his hand in his pocket and missed the money. He asked Gill to take him back. When saw the landlord, continued defendant, and he told him what had come for. Mr. Swift said: "Get out of that door.” He seized witness by the right arm and screwed it up his hack, and alleged that Mrs. Swift tried to gouge his left eye out with her finger nails. I broke loose and struck twice.” he added, "and must have hit them both.” 

Answering Mr. Ogden, defendant said he had £l6 in his pocket the Saturday afternoon quarter to five and did not out again until he went to this public house. He alleged that the landlord and his wife were telling pack lies and had concocted their story. 

Defendant’s wife and daughter gave evidence to the state he was in when he returned home this Sunday afternoon. His right ear was full of blood, his left eye was blood-shot and his face was scratched, the daughter remarking that he looked if a cat had been scratching him. 

At the request the Chairman (Mr. J. N. Hey), Sergeant Wignall was recalled and said that, according to the statement made to him by the landlord, the alleged assault on Mrs. Swift was made after she had intervened and scratched defendant. 

In announcing the decision the magistrates, after they had consulted in their room, the Chairman said the evidence in the second case they regarded as unsatisfactory and that was why they were dismissing it."
Barnoldswick & Earby Times - Friday 08 December 1944. 

Was Whalley trying to extort money from the landlord? Or was the landlord trying to cheat Whalley? It does sound as if Whalley was up to no good, but what exactly. Ut's all a bit strange.

Let me know what you think.


Saturday, 14 November 2020

Let's Brew - 1941 William Younger Export

Stronger beers didn’t fare well in the war. And Younger’s Export was no exception. This example, brewed on 19th March, is the last sighting I have of it until after the end of the war. At least it did return after the war, unlike most English strong Pale Ales.

Somewhat surprisingly, the OG is only 3º lower than pre-war. Leaving it an impressive 5% ABV. Probably more than that by the time it was consumed, as 1013º is the cleansing gravity, not the racking gravity

It was brewed in somewhat of a transition period, when Younger replaced some of the grits with rice. I’m surprised that they still had any grits available. They must have built up a large stock before the war made them unobtainable.

Most of the hops were Kent from the 1939 harvest. But 26 lbs of the 130 lbs are described simply as “samples” from the 1940 harvest.

1941 William Younger Export
pale malt 8.00 lb 66.67%
flaked rice 2.00 lb 16.67%
grits 2.00 lb 16.67%
Fuggles 145 min 1.00 oz
Fuggles 30 min 1.00 oz
Goldings dry hops 0.25 oz
OG 1051
FG 1013
ABV 5.03
Apparent attenuation 74.51%
IBU 23
Mash at 153º F
Sparge at 160º F
Boil time 145 minutes
pitching temp 60º F
Yeast WLP028 Edinburgh Ale