Monday, 18 March 2019

Dublin Porter Shipments to Great Britain 1905 - 1908

Guinness's dominationof Irish brewing is nothing new. Especially when it comes to Stout. Though there may have been Dublin rivals, they were brewing on a far smaller scale than Guinness.

For one simple reason: Guinness had penertrated the British market. Which meant they had a massively larger potential customer base than if their operations had been limited to Ireland.

Dublin Porter Shipments to Great Britain 1905 - 1908
Brewery 1905 1906 1907 1908
Guinness & Co. 604,818 650,981 670,503 687,486
Watkins, Jameson & Co. 38,544 39,482 36,542 36,176
D'Arcy & Son 23,493 27,789 23,472 21,947
Mountjoy Brewery 30,498 29,562 27,513 25,523
Other shippers 228 0 0 22,835
Total 697,581 747,813 758,030 793,965
The Brewers' Journal, vol. 45, 1909, page 8.

Shipments to Britain from the other three other Dublin breweries were declining while those of Guinness were increasing. Eventually the trade of the other breweries would dwindle to nothing.

As you can see in the more detailed table below, in 1908 about a third of Gunness sales were in Great Britaion, the other two thirds in Ireland. When WW I erupted, the proportion shipped to Britain had increased to 40%. It increased even further after WW I, exceeding 50% in 1920.

Though even in 1904 Guinness was selling more Extra Stout in Britain than in Ireland, where the majority of their sales was in the form of Porter. Guinness actively discouraged the shipment of its Porter to Britain because they were afraid of it being passed off as Extra Stout. At this point Extra Stout had an OG of 1075º and Porter 1060º.

Guinness sales 1904 - 1914
Extra Stout Porter other totals
Year Britain Ireland Britain Ireland total Britain Ireland FES/Export total
1904 584,598 494,949 1,375 849,883 74,980 585,973 1,344,832 74,980 2,005,785
1905 601,553 503,096 1,538 858,243 97,520 603,091 1,361,339 97,520 2,061,950
1906 643,878 509,573 1,572 857,919 113,204 645,450 1,357,492 113,204 1,482,268
1907 678,902 521,583 1,137 858,433 116,459 680,039 1,380,016 116,459 2,176,514
1908 695,562 531,337 963 859,977 100,799 696,525 1,391,314 100,799 2,188,638
1909 706,229 560,104 810 879,584 115,596 707,039 1,439,688 115,596 2,262,323
1910 782,281 593,459 1,231 901,660 135,860 783,512 1,495,119 135,860 2,414,491
1911 825,604 616,099 1,738 913,439 146,242 827,342 1,529,536 146,242 2,503,122
1912 913,659 674,868 556 926,592 157,880 914,215 1,601,460 157,880 2,673,555
1913 1,022,077 736,563 276 930,173 139,150 1,022,353 1,666,735 139,150 2,828,243
1914 1,070,814 731,511 116 897,455 141,844 1,070,930 1,628,965 141,844 2,642,740
"A Bottle of Guinness please" by David Hughes, pages 276-279

Numbers, eh? What could be more fun? Yes, obviously certain things people do in private without clothes. but otherwise, what can beat the existential thrill of scraping back the dirt to reveal a fresh number hoard? And can I come up with a paragraph containing more question marks?

Sunday, 17 March 2019

UK Beer Exports 1937 - 1949

Between the wars UK beer exports trundled along at between 200,000 and 350,000 barrels  annually. Which was about half the level it had been pre-WW I, when 500,000 to 650,000 barrels were exported each year.

Clearly the war was going to have an impact on exports. Especially as one of the main destination for UK exports, Belgium, had been occupied by the Germans.  In addition, German U-boats made shipping anything across the Atlantic a dangerous enterprise. And in the early phases of the war British shipping in the Mediterranean was susceptible to German or Italian attacks from the air. Plus most shipping capacity was reserved for war material or essential items, such as food.

Given all these negative factors, it’s no shock that beer exports shrank considerably in the early years of the war:

Belgium appears to have been receiving supplies if British beer right up until the Germans invaded. The trade didn’t resume until a couple of years after war’s end. The quantity of beer going to British colonies dried to a trickle between 1942 and 1944. 

Exports hit a nadir in 1942, a year when the war was only just starting turn in the Allies’ favour.

Not all the export markets were as large after the war as they had been before. India and the Straits Settlements, for example, were taking less than half the beer they had done pre-war. In the case of India, this was doubtless due to the withdrawal of British troops and administrators after independence in 1947. Belgium, on the other hand, imported similar quantities as pre-war. While more beer was shipped to the West Indies after the war than before it.

In the 1950s, UK exports stabilised at around 250,000 barrels a year – similar to what they had been in 1939. Though the destinations changed, as the British Empire slowly withered away and with it the former colonial markets.

UK beer exports by destination 1937 - 1943
Destination 1937 1939 1940 1941 1942 1943
Egypt 12,960 26,597 28,857 28,519 3,658 45
Irish Free State 119,763 52,081 35,306 25,843 16,730 14,810
British W. Africa 9,432 12,468 13,873 22,328 15,544 19,161
India & Straits Settlements 75,349 63,186 69,963 62,260 11,523 638
Brit. West India 10,298 10,925 8,499 8,081 5,082 6,629
Belgium 40,637 29,140 13,080
Other Countries  72,318 89,577 97,188 78,521 42,259 65,736
Total  340,757 283,974 266,766 225,552 94,796 107,019
Brewers' Almanack 1955, page 57.

UK beer exports by destination 1944 - 1949
Destination 1944 1945 1946 1947 1948 1949
Egypt 4,804 2,966 12,536 12,709 7,587 6,999
Irish Free State 4,878 128 221 3,280 6,201
British W. Africa 10,225 1,190 1,574 5,797 34,626
India & Straits Settlements 2,506 38,333 69,278 8,130 27,538 27,750
Brit. West India 1,701 7 251 1,045 14,009
Belgium 33,786
Other Countries  53,483 78,732 97,860 71,642 169,973 130,756
Total  77,597 130,443 187,418 109,680 205,098 254,127
Brewers' Almanack 1955, page 57.

Saturday, 16 March 2019

Let's Brew - 1867 Barclay Perkins XXX Ale

A very special treat today. A Mild worthy of March or May. Or even Middlemarch.

Because this is a beer specifically mentioned by George Eliot in one of her essays:

"German ennui must be something as superlative as Barclay's treble X, which, we suppose, implies an extremely unknown quantity of stupefaction."
I think it's safe to assume that the beer she means in Barclay Perkins XXX. For which I obviously have several brewing records. Including this lovely one from 1867.

By this point Barclay Perkins was no longer the largest brewery in the world, but it remained huge by the standards of the day. In 1867 it brewed 423,444 barrels, and was second in London after Truman, which brewed an impressive 554,955 barrels that year.*

You probably won't be surprised to learn that this was Barclay's strongest Mild Ale. It is a pretty powerful beer. Though not one that was around much longer: it was discontinued sometime in the 1870s. If I'd got my arse in gear and photographed the records between 1870 and 1880, I'd be able to give you a more precise date. But I didn't so I can't.

There's not much to the recipe: one type of pale malt and Mid-Kent hops from the 1866 harvest. A shitload of hops. I've knocked down the quantity a little for the recipe. But, as this was brewed in March 1867, the hops were pretty fresh.

* "The British Brewing Industry, 1830-1980" T. R. Gourvish & R.G. Wilson, pages 610-611.

1867 Barclay Perkins XXX Ale
pale malt 21.00 lb 100.00%
Goldings 75 mins 4.00 oz
Goldings 60 mins 4.00 oz
Goldings 30 mins 4.00 oz
OG 1093
FG 1034
ABV 7.81
Apparent attenuation 63.44%
IBU 132
1st Mash at 153º F
2nd Mash at 159º F
Sparge at 188º F
Boil time 75 minutes
pitching temp 62º F
Yeast Wyeast 1099 Whitbread Ale

Friday, 15 March 2019

Porcine excrement

Here's an extract from my much-neglected anthology of child torture. Sorry, travels with my infant sons. I would call them little bastards, but they resemble me in far too many ways.

The little bastards, sorry kids, have challenged me to shift more than ten copies of "Can We Go Home Now?" Maybe this extract will persuade you to help me win:

Lemmy's Biercafé
"What do you want?"
"A bacon and egg sandwich."
"A restraining order."
"A pint of Mild."

They didn't have any of these. But the orders did range from the unrealistic to the fantastic.

I'm sitting on a separate table to the kids. It works better that way if I want to write. I would complain of the kids spoiling the day with their antics. In reality, they've given loads of material. What's more important - fun or good material? You know the answer.

You want a description? Alright, brown café, corner location, some sort of music theme. They're playing - and have photos of - early 70's music stars. Is this life on Mars? Musically, yes. Brown wood, board floor. I'm bored. Chairman of the bored. There's a noticeable lack of Iggy here.

"I told you we'd have fun." I always say that. Luckily, today it was true. The kids love the idea of somewhere that invites mess. You're expected to throw your peanut shells on the floor. It's a big hit. I'm as happy as a porcine animal in excrement. They shut up and are just are revelling in litter. Perfect. Whisky time for dad.

Mmm. Maybe that's not such a greeat advert. Not sure what sort of day I was having then.

Want to discover more of my fatherly failings? Buy the effing book. Though I prefer to call them eccenticities rather than failings. But that doesn't alliterate. Unlike buy books.

Girls Get Public House Habit

One of the features of WW II that I like is how the temperance twats carried on much as they had in WW I. But they were completel;y ignored by the authorities.

They held meetings, passed resolutions, wrote letters to newspapers. All to zero effect. It must have been quite disheartening. It almost makes you feel sorry for them. Almost.

Women drinking had been a particular obsession of these twats, as it had been in the 19th century. In fact, moral outrage at females daring to enjoy a drink lasts to this day amongst the scummier elements of the British press. Which is pretty hypocritical, given what a bunch of pissheads journalists are.

Our young people are getting into the public-house habit.” declared the Rev. Walter Steele, of Consett, at the annual Synod of the Sunderland and Durham district of the Methodist Church at Sunderland yesterday.

The matter was creating great concern, he said, as every night one sees crowds of girls in public-houses. A conductress of a bus actually ordered a pint in one to begin with. Mostly they are very voting people and what are we to do? 

"These are the days of increased wages, but when the milk bars are closed, and the cafes offering very little, and they find two nights of dancing sufficient, well, they are a loose end.

"I have,” he added, been talking to some friends whose daughters are in the Forces.

Their reports are very distressing. One girl told that every night in her hut at least two girls were drunk, and she had to hide her valuables under her pillow for fear they were stolen.

"Another girl in the Wrens said some of the girls did not arrive until very late, and four of them who were drunk said they had spent the greater part of the night on a ship.

”It is a serious position, yet our present Government goes out of its way to encourage brewers to push forward their trade. Lord Woolton’s speech in the House of Lords was amazing.”

He moved a resolution urging the Government to take the necessary steps to reduce the manufacture of alcoholic drinks, which destroyed barley and sugar.

The Rev. J. H. J, Barker (Thompson Memorial Hall. Sunderland) said he made it his business to visit a number of public houses every Saturday night, and there he saw girls of scarcely legal age drinking.

"As a Methodist Church we are letting our Bands of Hope and temperance societies slide,” complained the Rev. William Armstrong (Chester-le-Street).

Alderman Bloomfield asserted that gambling ought to be dealt with by the churches, instancing raffles.

The motion was carried.

Motions urging the Government to reduce the number of days allowed for horse and dog racing, and against the sacredness of the Sabbath being affected Home Guard and A.T.C.s being called upon to train on a Sunday morning were also adopted.

At a private session a resolution moved by the Rev. Prank Spencer (Sunderland) and adopted by a large majority, expressed the Synod’s strong conviction that the hopes and aspirations now being cherished for a better national and international life can only realised as they are the expression of the Christian spirit and of Christian principles."
Newcastle Journal - Thursday 14 May 1942, page 4.
There's some great sexist crap in there. Fancy a woman daring to order a pint? And weaselly phrases like "girls of scarcely legal age drinking". That is, women who were over 18 and as free as adult men to indulge in the odd drink or two.

Why did they keep banging on about women so much? Because it was easier to provoke moral outrage.  Complaining about soldiers or sailors drinking, I'm sure they realised, was much less likely to be accepted by the general public.

This was the swansong of the first set of temperance lunatics. They still behaved as if it still had the ear of the government, when it had long since stopped paying attention to their counterproductive demands.

Brewing beer does not destroy barley and sugar. The beer produced from these ingredients retains almost all their food value. This is one of the great - and oft repeated - temperance lies.

Thursday, 14 March 2019

An early CAMRA member writes

about the pricing of beer in pubs.

It does read a bit like a letter you'd find in What's Brewing from the beery equivalent of Angry of Tunbridge Wells:

To the Editor of "The Citizen."
Sir, —In some cases, where an extra penny per pint is charged, the latest public house racket is to serve only in the best rooms and close the public bar. Just how a publican can be permitted by the authorities to close the bar when the best rooms are open beats me. Surely if a public house open at all the whole place should be? I have heard it suggested that the reason for this is the shortage of beer. All things being equal, I maintain that the so-called "roughs" of the bar are much entitled to be served in the public bar as are the elite who patronise the best rooms! How can it be said that there is a shortage of beer when the best rooms are open and the bar closed? Isn't it the extra pennies the brewers or licensees are after? I see that quite number of front doors remain cloned whilst the side doors are open. Also, secret "knocks" still prevail.

Yours faithfully,
Gloucester Citizen - Saturday 11 April 1942, page 4.

Profiteering brewers and landlords. No wonder Mr. Angry is disgusted. Sorry, Mr. Disgusted is angry.

To put that extra penny per pint into perspective, it had remained the same since beer was 4d to 8d per pint in pre-war days. Though the cheapest beer - watery 4d Mild - would never have been sold in the posher rooms. In 1942, when this article was written, the prices had risen to 9d to 15d. In the public bar.  Making drinking posh much less relatively expensive.

When I were a lad, and Mild and Bitter were 14p and 15p a pint, beer was 1p dearer in the rooms with a carpet. Money thrown away, in my eyes. Pubs in Leeds, where I spent most of my formative drinking years, mostly retained a multiroom layout. And differential pricing.

The knocking through of bars into one room has mostly removed the possibility of this weird relic of the class system. Though, obviously, it just meant that prices were levelled up to those of the the lounge.

It must seem odd to anyone under 30 that pubs once had different prices in different rooms.

Wednesday, 13 March 2019

Let's Brew Wednesday - 1851 William Younger 120/-

In the middle of the 19th century, the higher number Shilling Ales had daunting gravities. 100/- and upwards all had gravities over 1100º.  The Scots certainly like their beer strong back then.

The Shilling Ales seem to have been mostly destined for local consumption. Pale Ale, Stout, Table Beer and the occasional super-strong Ale were Scotland’s main exports. The bulk of the Shilling Ales weren’t going far. Probably no further South than Sunderland.

The main features of this iteration of 120/- are the short boil and fairly heavy hopping. Though, given the very high OG, it’s by no means excessive. The short boil is slightly surprising, given that this was brewed single-gyle.

It’s strange how many of William Younger’s very strong beers were brewed that way. Normal practice would have been to brew something of that gravity in a parti-gyle with a weaker beer. In Younger’s context, something like 50/- or 60/-.

It’s not total clear what the source of the malt was for this brew. There were 21 quarters of “Com” and 10 quarters of “Ch”. I suspect the former was malt bought in from maltsters, while the latter was malt they made themselves. Or maybe the other way around. But it does look as if, just like with the hops, that it was all sourced from the UK.

1851 William Younger 120/-
pale malt 27.50 lb 100.00%
Goldings 75 min 4.00 oz
Goldings 50 min 2.00 oz
Goldings 20 min 2.00 oz
OG 1118
FG 1047
ABV 9.39
Apparent attenuation 60.17%
IBU 72
Mash at 154º F
Sparge at 184º F
Boil time 75 minutes
pitching temp 55º F
Yeast WLP028 Edinburgh Ale

This is one of the 300-odd recipes in my definitive book on Scottish beer: 

Tuesday, 12 March 2019

Scottish Table Beer 1840 - 1880

Hi there. Being a lazy bastard again. Here's something I write about Scottish beer earlier. Because I can't be arsed to think up some of those new wordy things.

Arsed - being it, not being it. Where does that expression come from? I'm going Manchester.

While you're thinking about that, here's the boring shit:

Scottish brewers had quite a reputation for producing top-class Table Beer. This is reflected in the fact that it was often exported to England. While what Table Beer there was brewed in England was usually for quick, local consumption.

One of the odd characteristics of Scottish brewing is that it featured far more beers at the top and bottom end of the strength range than in England. Table Beer also hung around longer in Scotland. The last London Table Beer I’ve seen in the brewing records was produced in 1869. While William Younger was still brewing one in 1898.

The “beer” part of the name wasn’t random. The weakest malt liquors in the 18th century were almost always beers because, with low levels of alcohol, they needed the extra protection of more hops. And you can clearly see evidence of that in William Younger’s Table Beer, which was hopped at 11 to 12 pounds per quarter of malt. That’s a similar hopping rate to a Stock Ale.

Younger continued to brew a similar Table Beer in the succeeding decades, though the gravity fell over time, as did the hopping rate after 1868.

There’s not a huge deal to say about the grists. For the whole period they were 100% pale malt. Other than right at the start, when sometimes it was 100% pale malted bigg.

William Younger Table Beer 1848 - 1849
Date Year Beer OG FG ABV App. Atten-uation lbs hops/ qtr hops lb/brl
15th Apr 1848 T 1035 1010 3.31 71.43% 12.00 1.74
14th Nov 1849 T 1040 1014 3.44 65.00% 11.00 1.69
William Younger brewing record held at the Scottish Brewing Archive, document number WY/6/1/2/3.

William Younger Table Beer 1851 - 1879
Year Beer OG FG ABV App. Atten-uation lbs hops/ qtr hops lb/brl
1851 T 1037 1013 3.18 64.86% 12.00 1.69
1852 T 1037 1011 3.44 70.27% 11.11 1.32
1858 T 1035 1014 2.78 60.00% 16.43 1.44
1868 T 1031 1010 2.78 67.74% 16.25 1.37
1879 T 1030 1005 3.31 83.33% 6.67 0.89
William Younger brewings record held at the Scottish Brewing Archive, document numbers WY/6/1/2/5, WY/6/1/2/14, WY/6/1/2/21 and WY/6/1/2/28.

The text above is an excerpt from my tone-setting volume on the history of Scottish beer. It's dead good. Believe me. 

Monday, 11 March 2019

Knock Three Times

A lazy, let's just find something in the newspaper archive while I cook Sunday dinner. It is a fun mine I found, mind.

Some of the most interesting of Charles Booth's interviews, taken in the East End in the 1890s, were those with publicans and former policemen. Which discussed the unwritten - and often technically illegal - rules of interaction between the two.

The relationship between the beat bobby and landlords was a complex one. Publicans were keen to keep the local constables onside, to be sure of help dealing with unruly customers. For which the policeman was rewarded with a cigar. Or a free drink or two. The latter being very much against the law, if he was on duty.

Paying the police - again very illegal - was also common. A Mr. Cox, who owned five pubs, including the Pembury Tavern admitted: "Every week he pays 1/- per week to the police as "call money".

Knowing this, I'm pretty sure that there was an existing relationship between landlord and policeman in this case.

Police-Constable Joseph William Taylor of the Liverpool City Police Force, Cherry-lane, Walton, was summoned at Liverpool Police Court, today, accused of having consumed liquor outside permitted hours, while on duty, at a publichouse in Bevington-hill at 10.25 p.m. on August 22. He pleaded not guilty.

Mr. J. E. Bishop, prosecuting, said that at 10.25 p.m. on this date a plain-clothes sergeant on duty saw Taylor, who was also on duty, go to the side door of the public-house and knock three times. The door was opened by the woman licensee, and the sergeant heard the accused say, "It’s me."

The sergeant, added Mr. Bishop, then walked up to the door and gave three knocks and was admitted by the licensee. The sergeant searched the premises and found Taylor hiding behind a curtain in the saloon bar with a pint glass of beer in his hand.

Mr. Bishop said, "I must suggest that Taylor rather forced his way into the premises and somehow persuaded the licensee to supply him with drink."

Taylor, in evidence, said he did not consume any drink on this night. He admitted, in cross-examination that he was about to drink it.
Police-Superintendent C. S. Wheeldon said Taylor had a good character. He had been awarded a medal for stopping a runaway horse.

The Stipendiary fined Taylor 10s.

Mrs. Lily Eales, aged 36, licensee of a public-house in Bevington-hill, pleaded guilty to having aided and abetted Taylor to consume the liquor.

Mr. Bishop said that a policeman in uniform came into the public house and "practically demanded” that he should be supplied with liquor.

Mr. R. K. Milne, defending, said Mrs. Eales was in a quandary. She did not like to refuse the police constables.

The Stipendiary said that in view of what he had been told he would dismiss the summons with a caution against Mrs. Eales, on payment of 4s. costs."
Liverpool Evening Express - Thursday 11 September 1941, page 1.
There were good reason for maintaining good relations with your local copper when you were a publican. They could make your life very difficult and potentially take away your livelihood. Which is why Mrs. Eales "not like to refuse the police constables".

That the constable said "it's me." is another giveaway. It clearly wasn't the first time this had happenend. It seems an amazing coincidence that the plain clothes sargeant, also on duty, should have randomly been on the spot. My guess is that they knew Taylor was drinking on duty and deliberately trapped him. Which would also explain why the prosecution was very leniant on the landlady.

Knocking three times was obviously a signal.

Sunday, 10 March 2019

Boddington output by beer in 1939

Boddington’s output was totally dominated by XX Mild Ale. Their brewing records handily contain monthly totals, saving me the trouble of counting adding up all the individual brews.

Compared to the big London breweries Boddington were brewing on a pretty small scale. Based on the 3,200 barrels they brewed in April 1939, they must have brewed around 40,000 barrels. In the same year, Whitbread brewed 590,695 barrels. 

Looking at Boddington’s output in detail, around 71% was XX, 23% IP (Bitter), while Stout and CC (Strong Ale) amounted to 3% each. It’s pretty clear what was getting knocked back the most in Boddies’ pubs

Down South at Whitbread, Mild was also the most popular beer, but the two Milds (X and LA) combined only accounted for around 40% of production. The two Pale Ales (PA and IPA) clocked up 33%, while the Porter and Stouts held a very respectable 22%. Though it’s worth pointing out that just three beers – X, IPA and LS (London Stout) – made up around three-quarters of Whitbread’s production.

Boddington output by beer April 1939
Beer OG barrels tax per barrel total tax % of total
XX 1033      2,090.58 36      3,763.05 64.34%
XX 1034        212.92 38        404.28 6.55%
IP 1044        753.39 58      2,184.83 23.19%
Stout 1047          93.83 64        300.27 2.89%
CC 1055          98.33 80        393.32 3.03%
Total     3,249.06     7,045.75
Boddington brewing record held at Manchester Central Library, document number M693/405/129.

Whitbread output by beer in 1939
Beer OG barrels % of total
LA 1028.4 5,747 0.97%
X 1034 232,453 39.35%
33 1059.7 17,073 2.89%
DB 1054.5 8,663 1.47%
PA 1048.2 50,740 8.59%
IPA 1037 147,177 24.92%
P 1029.3 3,810 0.65%
LS 1046.3 67,177 11.37%
ES 1055.5 6,037 1.02%
MS 1057 50,890 8.62%
SSS 1110.3 928 0.16%
Total 590,695
Whitbread brewing record held at the London Metropolitan Archives, document number LMA/4453/D/01/107.
Whitbread brewing record held at the London Metropolitan Archives, document number LMA/4453/D/09/126.

Saturday, 9 March 2019


Did you realise I had merchandise? No, I didn't think so.

For reasons I won't go into, I've be spurred to add some more stuff. DDR-label-based, obviously.

I think I'll get one of these myself.

A lovely one from the town where I was married:

And one for a beer style specific to East Germany:

Buy the whole set and be the envy of your friends!

Let's Brew - 1939 Whitbread London Stout

There was some variation in the draught beer classes of London beers. Especially when it came to Stout.

For while some breweries had an 8d draught Stout with an OG of over 1050º, others brewed it as a 7d a pint beer, with a gravity of 1047-1048º. Whitbread belonged to the latter group.

For a brewer who had been brewing Porter since the 18th century, London Stout was a surprisingly recent product. It was first brewed just before WW I, in 1910. It immediately become Whitbread’s second most popular beer, only outsold by their Mild, X Ale.

As with their Porter, chocolate malt has been substituted for black malt. No surprise there, as London Stout was parti-gyled with Porter. At least for the moment. Porter wasn’t going to be around for much longer. Not sure why Whitbread moved over to chocolate malt. Their London rivals stuck with either black malt or roasted barley.

The tiny percentage of oats are there so Whitbread could legally sell some of this as Oatmeal Stout. Legally, if not morally, they were in the clear. All a bit of a con really, though. I wonder if anyone ever tried blind tasting the standard Stout and Oatmeal Stout? And did they cost the same?

The hops were the same, obviously, as the Porter with which it was parti-gyled: Mid-Kents from the 1936, 1937 and 1938 crops; Polish from 1938 and “Old Continentals”. A truly cosmopolitan bunch.

1939 Whitbread London Stout
pale malt 7.50 lb 71.98%
brown malt 0.75 lb 7.20%
chocolate malt 0.75 lb 7.20%
flaked oats 0.09 lb 0.86%
No. 3 invert sugar 1.00 lb 9.60%
caramel 1000 SRM 0.33 lb 3.17%
Hallertau 75 mins 0.50 oz
Fuggles 75 mins 0.75 oz
Goldings 30 mins 1.25 oz
OG 1047
FG 1015.5
ABV 4.17
Apparent attenuation 67.02%
IBU 31
SRM 39
Mash at 149º F
Sparge at 170º F
Boil time 75 minutes
pitching temp 62º F
Yeast Wyeast 1099 Whitbread Ale