Saturday, 20 April 2019

Let's Brew - 1915 Noakes X

Noakes was a small South London brewery, located close to London Bridge station. Brewing ceased in 1920, with all beer being produced in the company’s other brewery in Windsor. When they were acquired by Courage in 1930, Noakes owned 120 tied houses.

The early effects of WW I are clear in the gravity, which is lower than the 1050º which was standard before 1914 for London Mild.

The grist is odd in a couple of ways. Specifically in the tiny amount of flaked maize. I really can’t see what the point was, unless they were just using up the stock they had. Later in the war maize would disappear entirely from UK beers as the war situation made its importation impossible.

There’s an awful lot of sugar in this beer, mostly in the form of No. 3 invert. They was a small amount of a proprietary sugar called CDM. I’ve just bumped up the No. 3 quantity to include that.

Once again, the colour comes principally from sugar: No. 3 invert and caramel. The amount of black malt is so small that it doesn’t influence the final shade much.

1915 Noakes X Ale
pale malt 6.50 lb 69.00%
crystal malt 120 L 0.50 lb 5.31%
black malt 0.07 lb 0.74%
flaked maize 0.05 lb 0.53%
No. 3 invert sugar 2.25 lb 23.89%
caramel 2000 SRM 0.05 lb 0.53%
Cluster 90 mins 0.50 oz
Cluster 30 mins 0.50 oz
OG 1045
FG 1010.5
ABV 4.56
Apparent attenuation 76.67%
IBU 18
SRM 23
Mash at 142º F
After underlet 150º F
Sparge at 165º F
Boil time 90 minutes
pitching temp 63º F
Yeast Wyeast 1099 Whitbread Ale

This is one of the dozens of recipes in my book Mild! plus. Which is avaiable in both paperback:






and hardback formats:

Friday, 19 April 2019

A reminder for you bastards

To buy some of my books. So I can continue doing the amazingly time-consuming research that you love. Or maybe hate.

Whatever. I may decide I can't be fucked any more at some point. It's a shitload of work. And the return, in terms of euros per hour spent, is complete bollocks.

Show your appreciation in a proper capitalist way: with money.

Buy one or more of these books. If I sell enough, I may even give Alexei some money for his cover images. And get him that other shoe. I've only been able to afford one pair of shoes for the kids. Andrew gets the right one, Alexei the left.

 Buy this wonderful book.





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Now my contract limitations have expired, I can tart to my heart's content what  I like to call my expansion pack to The Home Brewer's Guide to Vintage Beer. Recipes? That's all it is. Loads  and loads of them. With North American and Lager recipes that Idropped from the original book for reasons of space.



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Adnams beers in 1946

Having their beers start the war pretty weak had one advantage for Adnams: they were very little affected by it, at least in terms of strength. In many ways, Adnams beers in 1939 already looked like post-war versions.

PA and DS both dropped 3º during the war, X just 2º. But the latter, kicking off the war already at a meagre 1029º really didn’t have very far to go in terms of gravity reduction. Because of the way the tax system worked – a minimum rate, the equivalent of that for a beer of 1027º, was charged whatever the strength of a beer. Making a beer weaker than 1027º very financially unattractive.

The table below shows the percentage change in OG and hopping rate.

Falls in gravity of just 7% were very much below the average. Fullers gravities, for example, fell between 9.5% and 42% between 1939 and 1945. Those numbers are much more typical of the changes to strength wrought by the war.

There’s a similarly small change in the hopping rates. Despite breweries being compelled by the government in June 1941 brewers to reduce their hopping rates by 20%.  I’m not sure how Adnams were able to effect such a small reduction in the amount of hops they used.

In a way, this is a good demonstration of the evening out of local strength differences during the war. Adnams beers were considerably weaker than those brewed in London in 1939. By 1946 they were roughly similar.


Adnams beers in 1946
Date Beer Style OG FG ABV App. Atten-uation lbs hops/ qtr hops lb/brl
1st Jan PA Pale Ale 1036 1008.9 3.59 75.38% 7.20 1.02
2nd Jan XX Mild Ale 1027 1005.5 2.84 79.48% 4.63 0.50
10th Jan DS Stout 1039 1012.7 3.47 67.33% 5.78 0.92
Source:
Adnams brewing record Book 33 held at the brewery.


Adnams beers 1939 - 1946
Beer Style OG in 1939 OG in 1946 % fall lbs hops/ qtr in 1939 lbs hops/ qtr in 1946 % fall
PA Pale Ale 1039 1036 7.69% 8.00 7.20 10.00%
XX Mild Ale 1029 1027 6.90% 4.93 4.63 6.14%
DS Stout 1042 1039 7.14% 5.78 5.78 -0.04%
Sources:
Adnams brewing records Book 26 and 33 held at the brewery.

Thursday, 18 April 2019

Adnams grists in 1939

Adnams grists are notable for a couple of reasons. First, they contain no adjuncts, only malt and sugar. This was highly unusual. Pretty much everyone included maize – usually in flaked form, but occasionally as grits – in their recipes.

Only PA contained pale malt. The other beers all used something called medium malt as a base. I’m assuming that it was something along the lines of mild malt, but I could be wrong. It’s use in darker beers suggests that it’s less fancy base malt.

The grists of XX, XXXX and DS are all very similar, except the latter includes chocolate malt as well as amber and crystal. At thus point it was unusual to find amber malt in anything other than Porter and Stout.

The grist of PA is incredibly simple, containing just pale malt and No. 1 invert sugar. That’s about as stripped down as Bitter recipes come.

The sugar content, at around 15% of the grist is quite. But as Adnams used no adjuncts, the malt percentage is about the same, or even a little higher, than was the norm.

There are no proprietary sugars, just No. 1 and No. 3 invert. Which, by this time, was pretty old-school.  Many brewers used all sorts of specialised sugar products, often designed for a particular type of beer. No. 3 is exactly what you would expect to find in dark beers like XX and XXXX.


Adnams malts in 1939
Date Beer Style OG pale malt amber malt choc. Malt crystal malt medium malt
22nd May XX Mild Ale 1029 4.79% 4.79% 76.62%
24th May XXXX Old Ale 1055 4.81% 4.81% 76.91%
23rd May PA Pale Ale 1039 87.10%
8th Jun DS Stout 1042 5.96% 5.96% 5.96% 71.57%
Source:
Adnams brewing record Book 26 held at the brewery.


Adnams malts in 1939
Date Beer Style OG no. 1 sugar no. 3 sugar Tintose total
22nd May XX Mild Ale 1029 12.77% 1.03% 13.80%
24th May XXXX Old Ale 1055 12.82% 0.66% 13.48%
23rd May PA Pale Ale 1039 12.90% 12.90%
8th Jun DS Stout 1042 7.95% 2.59% 10.54%
Source:
Adnams brewing record Book 26 held at the brewery.

Wednesday, 17 April 2019

A great opportunity

Should you wish to wonder at my slight East Midlands accent - or maybe listen to what I have to say about beer history - I've a whole series of fascinating talks:

Brettanomyces in British Brewing        45 minutes
The Home Brewer’s Guide to Vintage Beer    45 minutes
The Home Brewer’s Guide to Vintage Beer    60 minutes
British Beer Styles: A Short History        60 minutes
The History of British Lager            60 minutes
Dutch Lager Styles                45 minutes
German Sour Styles                45 minutes
18th Century English brewing            75 minutes
Berliner Weisse                    60 minutes
International cooperation in the 19th-century brewing industry    45 minutes
Scottish Beer                    45 minutes

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Randall Hixson please get in touch

Using the CONTACT ME gadget to the left. Then I can get your recipe sorted out.

Let's Brew Wednesday - 1934 Kidd X

Yet another Mild recipe in the run up to May. A fairly puny one this time.

Based in Dartford, Kent, Kidd was quite a small brewery, owning just 65 tied houses. They were bought by Courage in 1937 and closed immediately.

As was often the case with Dark Mild Ales, there’s no malt darker than crystal. Though there is quite a lot of that. The bulk of the colour, however, comes from the caramel. “M” to be specific, which was a proprietary caramel from manufacturer Hay. Whitbread also used it in their Mild.

The interwar period was when brewers started to use malt extract in their beers. The quantities are pretty small so I’m assuming is was to add extra enzymes rather than for flavour. In this case, it was DME – Diastatic Malt Extract.

The hops were all Est Kent Fuggles, half from the 1932 harvest, the remainder from 1933 and 1934.


1934 Kidd X
mild malt 4.25 lb 65.03%
pale malt 0.50 lb 7.65%
crystal malt 120 L 1.00 lb 15.30%
flaked maize 0.50 lb 7.65%
malt extract 0.125 lb 1.91%
raw cane sugar 0.08 lb 1.22%
caramel 2000 SRM 0.08 lb 1.22%
Fuggles 105 mins 0.75 oz
Fuggles 30 mins 0.75 oz
OG 1032
FG 1005
ABV 3.57
Apparent attenuation 84.38%
IBU 19
SRM 23
Mash at 146.5º F
After underlet 152º F
Sparge at 160º F
Boil time 105 minutes
pitching temp 60º F
Yeast Wyeast 1099 Whitbread Ale

This is one of the dozens of recipes in my book Mild! plus. Which is avaiable in both paperback:






and hardback formats:

Tuesday, 16 April 2019

Adnams beers in 1939

As a relatively small, rural brewery, Adnams served a very different market to large urban breweries. Their range of beers was pretty small – just five in all – and they were considerably weaker than equivalent London beers.

Only their XXXX Old Ale and DS Stout were above average OG, which in 1939 was 1041º.  . As they didn’t brew very large quantities of either, the average OG of what they brewed must have been well below the national average.

It’s a bit of a cheek calling a beer with an OG below 1030º XX. I doubt it fooled anyone, as it must have drunk very light. Mild ales of this strength did exist in London – where they were call 4d Ales – but they were brewed in tiny quantities. Most Mild Ales from the capital were either around 1037º or 1043º.

Adnam’s PA is equally watery for the style. It’s clearly been brewed as a 6d per pint beer, while in London draught Bitter almost always came in the 7d (1048º) or 8d (1043º) classes. I assume this is the result of people being less well off in rural districts.

Similarly DS is about as weak as Stout got before WW II. Whitbread’s and Barclay Perkins’ draught London Stout, for example, both had an OG of about 1046º. I doubt the Adnams beer was ever sold on draught. By this point draught Stout was pretty rare outside London.

The only beer with a decent OG by the standards of the time is XXXX. It’s a typical Southern-style Old Ale, meaning it’s basically just like a pre-WW I Mild. Though in this case it isn’t just a souped-up version of XX Mild. The grists were identical, but XXXX was hopped considerably more heavily and was dry-hopped, unlike XX.

Missing from the table above is Adnams Barley Wine, Tally Ho. It was only brewed very occasionally and I missed it in the 1939 records.

The hopping rates are reasonable, with PA hopped at a similar rate to London Bitters. XX is more lightly hopped than London equivalents, but is fairly normal for provincial Milds.

Adnams beers in 1939
Date Beer Style OG FG ABV App. Atten-uation lbs hops/ qtr hops lb/brl
22nd May XX Mild Ale 1029 1006.1 3.03 78.99% 4.93 0.58
24th May XXXX Old Ale 1055 1017.7 4.93 67.77% 6.94 1.53
23rd May PA Pale Ale 1039 1010.0 3.84 74.43% 8.00 1.27
8th Jun DS Stout 1042 1013.3 3.80 68.34% 5.78 1.01
Source:
Adnams brewing record Book 26 held at the brewery.

Monday, 15 April 2019

Scottish draught Pale Ale on the eve of WW II

Between the wars little other than Pale Ale was brewed in Scotland. Most breweries produced three at different strengths. In most cases, these were parti-gyled together in various combinations. Though William Younger mostly brewed single-gyle.

The names used could be very confusing, especially when it came to bottled beer. 60/- usually indicated a beer between 1037º and 1041º. But 90/-, which you would expect to be stronger, was actually much weaker, generally just over 1030º. Were Scottish drinkers baffled by this? I would have been.

To complicate things even more, some of the post-WW II names were already in use, such as Heavy and Export. They referred to the same classes as post-war, but had considerably higher gravities.

Drybrough brewed a fairly typical range of Pale Ales, ranging in gravity from 1032º to 1049º. Though the vast majority of what they brewed – around 85% - was 60/-. Having so much output in the form of a single beer was pretty much unknown in England.

Drybrough Pale Ales in 1938
Beer OG FG ABV App. Atten-uation lbs hops/ qtr hops lb/brl
P 54/- 1032 1012 2.65 62.50% 4.86 0.64
P 60/- 1038 1012 3.44 68.42% 4.93 0.78
P 80/- 1049 1012 4.89 75.51% 4.93 1.01
Source:
Drybrough brewing record held at the Scottish Brewing Archive, document number D/6/1/1/4.

The level of hopping is very light, considerably less than London X Ale, which usually contained 7-8 lbs per quarter, or around 50% more than Drybrough’s Pale Ales.

Maclay of Alloa brewed a very similar range of Pale Ales:

Maclay Pale Ales in 1938
Beer OG FG ABV App. Atten-uation lbs hops/ qtr hops lb/brl
IPA 5d 1032 1014 2.38 56.25% 5.00 0.70
IPA 6d 1038 1016 2.91 57.89% 5.00 0.83
IPA 7d 1045 1017 3.70 62.22% 5.00 0.98
Source:
Maclay brewing record held at the Scottish Brewing Archive, document number M/6/1/1/3.

In this case, rather than Shilling designations the names are the retail price per pint. In contrast to in London, where Pale Ales where were usually in the 7d and 8d classes, most Scottish brewers stuck to the 5d, 6d and 7d classes. The hopping rate at Maclay was very similar to at Drybrough.


Scottish draught Pale Ale 1936 - 1938
Year Brewer Beer Price per pint (d) OG FG ABV App. Atten-uation
1936 McEwan 90/- Ale 6 1034.2 1009 3.27 73.68%
1938 Aitken Pale Ale 1039.8 1006.8 4.30 83.02%
1938 Aitken Heavy Ale 7 1045 1007 4.95 84.44%
1938 Usher Amber Ale 1044.5 1009 4.62 79.78%
Sources:
Whitbread Gravity book held at the London Metropolitan Archives, document number LMA/4453/D/02/001.
Thomas Usher Gravity Book held at the Scottish Brewing Archive document TU/6/11,

Sunday, 14 April 2019

London draught Pale Ale on the eve of WW II

In the capital, two or even three draught Pale Ales was standard. Fitting the 6d, 7d and 8d per pint niches, when sold on draught. Though, as you can see in the table below, 7d and 8d Bitters were the norm.

7d Bitters had gravities in the high 1040º’s, and 8d Bitters ones in the mid-1050º’s. These gravities and prices had remained constant since the early 1920s, with the exception of the years 1931 to 1933, when there had been a disastrous tax increase. Brewers’ reaction was to reduce gravities to leave retail prices the same, rather than raise prices by 1d per pint as the government had expected.

You can see that there wasn’t a huge amount of variation in the strength of beers in each class. That isn’t coincidence. Brewers were well aware of the gravities of their rivals’ beers, despite them not being made public. I’m sure that all the larger breweries, just like Whitbread and Truman, had their rivals’ beers analysed. It’s only drinkers who were in the dark as to how strong their beer was.

The rate of attenuation is fairly high, at least 75% in all but two examples. The ABVs are accordingly also quite high, with the Mann’s example even hitting 6% ABV. There would never be a London-brewed Bitter of a similar strength again.


London draught Pale Ale in 1938
Year Brewer Beer Price per pint (d) OG FG ABV App. Atten-uation colour
1938 Barclay Perkins PA 7 1043.9 1011.3 4.23 74.26%
1938 Charrington PA 7 1046 1007.2 5.06 84.35%
1938 Taylor Walker Pale Ale 7 1043.1 1015.7 3.54 63.57%
1938 Truman Pale Ale 7 1048 1006.8 5.38 85.83% 24
1938 Watney Pale Ale 7 1048.8
1938 Whitbread Pale Ale 7 1048.6 1011 4.89 77.37% 27
Average 1046.4 1010.4 4.62 77.08%
1938 Courage PA 8 1050.2 1012.7 4.87 74.70%
1938 Mann PA 8 1052.4 1006.5 6.01 87.60% 27
1938 Watney PA 8 1055 1012.2 5.57 77.82% 27
1938 Wenlock Pale Ale 8 1054
Average 1052.9 1010.5 5.48 80.04%
Sources:
Whitbread Gravity book held at the London Metropolitan Archives, document number LMA/4453/D/02/002.
Whitbread brewing record held at the London Metropolitan Archives, document number LMA/4453/D/01/105.
Truman Gravity Book held at the London Metropolitan Archives, document number B/THB/C/252.

Saturday, 13 April 2019

Let's Brew - Russell 4d Ale

Continuing my Mild series for no other reason than I fucking love Mild. Here's another Mild recipe. But not from one of the usual suspects.

Russell’s was a decent-sized regional brewery based in Gravesend, Kent. It was purchased by the Russell family in 1856, became a limited company in 1893. When Truman bought the company in 1930, Russell owned 223 tied houses.

4d Ale, as a type, is a hangover from WW I. A low-gravity Mild Ale in the weakest price-controlled gravity band. In London it was only brewed in small quantities, out it the sticks, it was more popular. Presumably amongst the price-conscious dinkers.

I keep banging on about how simple old recipes were. And how Dark Mild didn’t contain any dark malts. But here’s an old beer that contradicts both those assertions.

With three different malts – four if you count the English and Californian pale malts as different – the bill is quite varied. Three types of sugar, glucose, invert and Tintose, complete the picture. These appear as glucose, No. 3 invert and caramel in the recipe below.

The hops were English from the 1926, 1927 and 1928 harvests, Poperinge from 1928, Oregon from 1927 and samples. The cheapskates. The first time I encountered generic “samples” was in a wartime record and I assumed it was an example of making do. Since I’ve spotted them in records from unstressed times, as here.


1929 Russell 4d Ale
pale malt 5.00 lb 76.34%
crystal malt 60 L 0.25 lb 3.82%
black malt 0.125 lb 1.91%
flaked maize 0.75 lb 11.45%
glucose 0.25 lb 3.82%
No. 3 invert sugar 0.125 lb 1.91%
caramel 2000 SRM 0.05 lb 0.76%
Cluster 90 mins 0.25 oz
Strisselspalt 90 mins 0.25 oz
Fuggles 60 mins 0.50 oz
Fuggles 30 mins 0.50 oz
OG 1029
FG 1006
ABV 3.04
Apparent attenuation 79.31%
IBU 22
SRM 15
Mash at 144º F
After underlet 146º F
Sparge at 167º F
Boil time 90 minutes
pitching temp 62º F
Yeast Wyeast 1099 Whitbread Ale

I'm totally aware that the label is for a totally different brewery.


This is one of the dozens of recipes in my book Mild! plus. Which is avaiable in both paperback:





and hardback formats:

Friday, 12 April 2019

Make yourself special

By brewing a beer first brewed on your birthday!

I have a literal shitload of brewing records. At least 15,000. Maybe more. I haven't been counting. What I do have is at least one for every day of the year. From January 1st to December 31st.

Even Christmas Day? I hear you ask. Yes, because it wasn't a public holiday in Scotland.

So click on that button just to the left. Get your own unique, personalised recipe. With original waffle from me about the beer and an image of the brewing record, just to prove I'm not fucking you around.


Should you not want to fork out for something individual, hundreds of historic recipes can be found in my outstanding new collection:




Boys Bitter

Time for another book extract. This time from one that covers probably the least fashionable period of UK brewing: the immediate post WW II years.

The name is one which was later – I think in the 1970s – was given to a type of low-gravity draught Bitter found in the Southwest of England. By the 1970s these beers often played the role of draught Mild, which by then had mostly disappeared from the region.

I’m using the term to refer to any draught Bitter under 1036º. It’s a pretty arbitrary distinction, but it stops the tables getting too big.

The rate of attenuation – which is just under 80% - is pretty high. Presumably that’s an attempt to compensate for the low gravity. It leaves the average ABV a respectable 3.5%.

The 1960s didn’t bring about any huge changes to this type of beer, as you can see in the next table.

The average rate of attenuation is even higher than in the 1950s, over 80%. And, surprisingly, the average price per pint is lower, just over 14d rather than almost 16d.


Draught Bitter in the 1950's - Boys Bitter
Year Brewer Beer Price per pint (d) OG FG ABV App. Attenua-tion colour
1959 Fuller Bitter 14 1031.6 1004.1 3.58 87.03% 23
1959 Charrington  BBB 17 1032.8 1007.8 3.24 76.22% 14
1954 Barclay Perkins XLK 15 1032.9 1004.5 3.70 86.32%
1954 Meux PA 17 1033.7 1007.3 3.43 78.34% 24
1954 Barclay Perkins XLK 15 1033.8 1006.9 3.49 79.59% 19
1954 Taylor Walker EPA 17 1034 1008.6 3.29 74.71% 23
1958 Vaux & Co Bitter Ale 17 1034.2 1007.8 3.43 77.19% 26
1953 Whitbread Pale Ale 16 1035.1 22
1957 Ind Coope Best Bitter 17 1035.2 1008 3.53 77.27% 19
1954 Mann Crossman KK 17 1035.3 1007.7 3.58 78.19% 19
1957 Charrington PA 15 1035.5 1004.9 3.98 86.20% 23
1959 Whitaker Bitter 14 1035.6 1010.2 3.17 71.35% 22
Average 15.9 1034.1 1007.1 3.49 79.3% 21.5
Sources:
Truman Gravity Book held at the London Metropolitan Archives, document number B/THB/C/252.
Whitbread Gravity book held at the London Metropolitan Archives, document number LMA/4453/D/02/002.
document from the Steel Coulson archive held at the Scottish Brewing Archives
T & J Bernard's brewing records held at the Scottish Brewing Archive


Boys Bitter 1960 - 1964
Year Brewer Beer Price OG FG ABV App. Atten-uation colour
1960 Beasley Bitter 15 1034.3 1004.5 3.72 86.88% 35
1960 Blatch Brewery Bitter 14 1031.8 1003.9 3.49 87.74% 20
1960 Burt & Co. Best Bitter 13 1032.6 1004.5 3.51 86.20% 20
1964 Camerons Ordinary Bitter 15 1031.3 1006.7 3.07 78.59% 30
1960 Charles Wells  Bitter 18 1034.4 1006.6 3.48 80.81% 18
1960 Charrington  Ordinary Bitter 14 1033.8 1008 3.35 76.33% 18
1960 Clinch Bitter 13 1034 1006.1 3.49 82.06% 20
1960 Dunmow Brewery Bitter 14 1033.6 1006.6 3.37 80.36% 25
1960 Fremlin XXX Bitter 14 1035.5 1005.7 3.72 83.94% 26
1960 Friary Bitter 14 1033.8 1005.2 3.57 84.62% 20
1960 Fullers Ordinary Bitter 16 1032.2 1005.3 3.50 83.54% 24
1960 Garne & Sons Bitter 13 1031.2 1004.3 3.36 86.22% 21
1960 Georges Bitter 13 1030.9 1004.75 3.40 84.63%
1960 Gray's Bitter 13 1033.6 1006.1 3.44 81.85% 21
1960 Greenall Whitley Bitter 14 1034.4 1005.95 3.70 82.70%
1960 Greene King Ordinary Bitter 13 1033.9 1005.7 3.53 83.19% 26
1964 Hammond Caledonian Scotch 15 1031.2 1008.7 2.81 72.12% 30
1960 Hammond United Best Bitter 16 1035.5 1004.05 4.10 88.59%
1960 Harvey's Bitter 14 1033.8 1006.1 3.46 81.95% 22
1960 Kemp Town Bitter 12 1031.5 1004 3.44 87.30% 16
1960 Morland Bitter 14 1035.6 1006.1 3.69 82.87% 18
1960 Morrell Light Bitter 12 1030.7 1005 3.21 83.71% 17
1960 Morrell Best Bitter 15 1035.3 1005.3 3.75 84.99% 23
1964 Newcastle Breweries Sotch Ale 15 1032.3 1005.4 3.36 83.28% 30
1964 Northern Clubs Federation Ordinary Bitter 13 1033.1 1004.5 3.57 86.40% 25
1960 Rayments Bitter 12 1030.3 1004.1 3.27 86.47% 18
1960 Rayments Best Bitter 14 1035.7 1006.4 3.66 82.07% 22
1961 Rhymney Silver Drum 18 1035.1 1007.1 3.50 79.77% 17
1960 Ridley Ordinary Bitter 14 1034.2 1009.8 3.05 71.35% 19
1960 Star Brewery, Eastbourne Bitter 12 1029.5 1003.3 3.28 88.81% 20
1960 Tamplin Bitter 14 1034.3 1006 3.54 82.51% 24
1960 Thwaites Bitter 16 1035.8 1006.6 3.80 81.56%
1960 Tollemache Bitter 16 1033.3 1003.4 3.74 89.79% 20
1960 Usher Ordinary Bitter 13 1032.5 1007.3 3.15 77.54% 18
1960 Ushers Bitter 13 1031.9 1008.75 3.00 72.57%
1960 Vaux Best Bitter 15 1034.8 1005.6 3.80 83.91%
1960 Wenlock Bitter 16 1035 1008.7 3.41 75.14% 26
Average 14.2 1033.3 1005.8 3.47 82.50% 22.2
Sources:
Whitbread Gravity book held at the London Metropolitan Archives, document number LMA/4453/D/02/002.
Which Beer Report, 1960, pages 171 - 173.


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