Friday, 21 January 2022

The darkening of Mild Ale

I'm always finding new information in brewing records. Suddenly twigging what some seemingly random squiggle means. I had this happen to me this week. When doing some research on Dark Mild for my book after next, "Free!".

I realised that there were a couple of Fullers journals that I'd never processed. Not sure why. Other than that I've thousands of photographs of brewing records and I mostly only extract information from them when needed. For some reason I was attracted to this line:


It's on the bottom right - "Tint 45º"

In the last couple of decades of the 19th century, Mild Ales began to darken. Well, some of them did. The process was very patchy and didn’t occur everywhere simultaneously. It’s also very difficult to pin down exactly when and to what degree Mild became darker.

The biggest problem is the lack of hard data. It’s tricky calculating the colour from the ingredients, especially when sugar is involved. As this is mostly only described very vaguely. There are very few records of beer colour before WW I. Occasionally chemical analyses will include a number for the colour, mostly in some weird scale that died out 100 plus years ago. Only a handful of Barclay Perkins records from the Edwardian period include the beer’s colour.

At least that’s what I thought. Until I happened to notice that line in a Fullers brewing record. That “Tint” number looked like it was in an understandable scale. The type of Lovibond used before WW II.

Having multiple examples spanning a few years, it’s possible to get an idea about what was happening with the colour of Fullers X Ale. It starts off in 1893 at 45. That’s what I’d call semi-dark, a little duskier than Newcastle Brown Ale. About 11 SRM. Well short of the colour of a modern Dark Mild. Plenty dark enough, be easily distinguished form their Pale Ales.

In 1897, it became a little darker and the following year paler again. Whatever the fluctuations, it had double the colour value of its Pale Ale siblings.

My guess as to when the darkening of Mild Ale began was the 1880s or 1890s. I now know for certain that it had started in the early 1890s. At least in London. It's clear that Mild didn’t move suddenly from pale to dark in one step, but rather it was a gradual process, taking decades.

The unanswered question is why Mild Ale became darker. That’s still a mystery.

Thursday, 20 January 2022

London X Ales 1880 - 1899

In the 1870s Mild replaced Porter as London’s favourite beer. At least if Whitbread are anything to go by. Their X Ale outsold their Porter for the first time in 1875.   Within a decade it had pulled far ahead, outselling Porter almost two to one.  X Ale remained Whitbread’s best-selling beer at the start of WW II. That’s quite a stint as top dog.

The big London Porter breweries didn’t even brew Mild Ale until the 1830s. Before that, they had concentrated exclusively on Porter and Stout. This might have been for purely logistical reasons as until 1829, Beer (i.e. Porter and Stout) came in different-sized barrels to Ale. Though the beginning of a wane in Porter’s popularity might well also have played a role.

In the 1830s and 1840s, London brewers produced a full range of Mild Ales, from X to XXXX. Gradually the stronger versions, of which only modest quantities were ever brewed, were discontinued. A few stronger Milds were still around in the 1880s, but a decade later pretty much only X Ale survived. Albeit being brewed in massive quantities.

Late 19th-century X Ales look ridiculously strong to modern eyes, often weighing in at over around 1060º. Believe it or not, gravities had declined. In the 1850s, most London examples of the style had been over 1070º.

It wasn’t just in terms of gravity that these Milds differed from modern versions. The rate of hopping was much higher. Averaging around 8 lbs per quarter (336 lbs) of malt, my calculations leave some at over 50 IBU. A crazily high level of bitterness to today’s eyes.

London X Ales 1880 - 1899
Year Brewer OG FG ABV App. Atten-uation lbs hops/ qtr hops lb/brl
1880 Barclay Perkins 1060.7 1013.6 6.23 77.63% 10.29 2.69
1886 Barclay Perkins 1055.0 1010.0 5.96 81.87% 6.42 1.61
1886 Barclay Perkins 1064.0 1015.0 6.49 76.63% 8.00 1.97
1887 Barclay Perkins 1059.0 1016.1 5.68 72.77% 6.07 1.34
1890 Barclay Perkins 1058.0 1016.9 5.44 70.87% 9.06 2.19
1899 Barclay Perkins 1054.7 1009.4 5.99 82.78% 8.85 1.98
1881 Whitbread 1061.2 1015.8 6.01 74.21% 7.35 2.05
1885 Whitbread 1063.2 1019.9 5.72 68.42% 8.04 2.21
1891 Whitbread 1059.6 1016.0 5.76 73.13% 8.03 2.14
1895 Whitbread 1059.6 1016.0 5.76 73.13% 8.01 2.17
1898 Whitbread 1058.4 1017.0 5.48 70.91% 6.92 1.86
1887 Fullers 1050.7 1013.6 4.91 73.22% 6.64 1.41
1893 Fullers 1050.4 1010.0 5.35 80.22% 6.86 1.49
1898 Fullers 1049.6 1012.7 4.87 74.30% 6.58 1.42
1880 Truman 1061.8 1015.2 6.16 75.34% 10.8 3.35
1885 Truman 1059.0       8.0 2.12
1890 Truman 1058.2       8.9 2.30
1895 Truman 1056.5       7.6 2.03
  Average 1057.7 1014.5 5.72 75.03% 7.91 2.02
Barclay Perkins brewing records held at the London Metropolitan Archives, document numbers ACC/2305/1/579, ACC/2305/1/584, ACC/2305/1/583, ACC/2305/1/586 and ACC/2305/1/593.
Whitbread brewing records held at the London Metropolitan Archives, document numbers LMA/4453/D/01/047, LMA/4453/D/01/050, LMA/4453/D/01/057, LMA/4453/D/01/061 and LMA/4453/D/01/064
Fullers brewing records hels at the brewery.
Truman brewing records held at the London Metropolitan Archives, document numbers B/THB/C/161, B/THB/C/166, B/THB/C/171 and B/THB/C/175.


Wednesday, 19 January 2022

Let's Brew Wednesday - 1915 Courage Imperial Stout

Before WW I, many London brewers had an Imperial Stout in their portfolio. Most, like that of Courage, either didn’t survive the war or stumbled on in the interwar years at a much-reduced strength. 1915 was the last years Courage Imperial Stout was brewed. A couple of years before massive cuts in gravity were enforced.

To avoid any confusion, this wasn’t the ancestor of Courage Russian Stout. That was the successor to the Imperial Stout of Barclay Perkins, a brewery bought up by Courage in the 1950s.

No surprises in the grist, which is the London holy trinity of pale, brown and black malt. As is often the case, the type of sugar wasn’t specified in the brewing record. I’ve guessed No. 2 invert. Mostly because No. 3 or No. 4 results in a beer which seems too dark. Though in 1916 Courage did use No. 4 invert in their Porter and Stout.

Two types of English hops were used, one from the 1914 harvest, the other from 1913, but cold stored. So, all pretty fresh, really, considering this beer was brewed in March. I’ve guessed for Fuggles and Goldings, as they seem the most probable varieties.

1915 Courage Imperial Stout
pale malt 12.50 lb 58.82%
brown malt 4.25 lb 20.00%
black malt 2.25 lb 10.59%
No. 2 invert sugar 2.25 lb 10.59%
Fuggles 90 mins 2.75 oz
Goldings 30 mins 2.75 oz
Goldings dry hops 1.00 oz
OG 1094
FG 1025
ABV 9.13
Apparent attenuation 73.40%
IBU 47
SRM 60
Mash at 152º F
Sparge at 165º F
Boil time 90 minutes
pitching temp 58º F
Yeast Wyeast 1099 Whitbread Ale



Tuesday, 18 January 2022

Imperial Stout in Scotland in the 19th century

I'm going to drag this out for much, much longer. Unless I get bored, of course. Not much sign of that yet.

Dipping my toes into the shallow end of the 19th century, much the same Imperial Stouts were knocking around Scotland.  Which means Combe and Barclay Perkins.

IMPERIAL STOUT    Yellow Label.
DOUBLE    Do.    Green Do.
INVALID Do.    Red Do.
A. JACK. Grocer and Wine Merchant, 16 HIGH STREET; DINGWALL.
North Star and Farmers' Chronicle - Thursday 31 August 1899 , page 7.

Combe being well established as a Stout brand in Scotland while still an independent brewery explains why Watney persisted with the brand well into the 20th century.

Barclay Perkins likewise had more than just their Imperial Stout on offer:

ELFERT'S. BARCLAY, PERKINS’ LONDON IMPERIAL STOUT, in fine condition, 2s 3d doz, pints. BARCLAY, PERKINS’ BROWN STOUT, 1s 9d per doz. pints.
Aberdeen Press and Journal - Friday 03 April 1891, page 2.

As mentioned in a previous post, at 2.25d per bottle, those have to be reputed pints rather than Imperial pints.

The same applies to this advert: 







These are Bottled on the Premises, and are Guaranteed PURE and in Sparkling Condition.
Aberdeen Press and Journal - Tuesday 12 July 1898, page 1.

At least one Scottish brewery was in the Imperial Stout business:

The Celebrated "CASTLE" PALE ALES sad IMPERIAL STOUT always in Splendid Condition.
G. & J. MACLACHLAN, Town Office - 26 and 27 ST. ENOCH SQUARE GLASGOW.
Hamilton Herald and Lanarkshire Weekly News - Friday 27 May 1898, page 2.

Finally, another English Imperial Stout. And a rather odd Malt Wine:

Is a specifically brewed INVALID STOUT from Malt and Hops of the finest quality, and will be found to invigorate the system without leaving any sign of heaviness  dulness behind after drinking as is the case of most Stouts. 

Important unsolicited Testimonial from DR. A. BALFOUR.
29, Abercorn Terrace, Portobello,
April 2nd, 1890.
Gentlemen.- I beg to thank you sincerely for your kind gift of "Invalid Stout," sent to me through Mr. Carmicheal. I have already found it beneficial to my wife, who is just now convalescent from a long illness, and I will recommend it to my patients in suitable cases.
I am, Gentlemen, Yours very truly,

Recommended by the Medical Faculty as being the most nourishing Stout obtainable. 

Sold in Champagne Pint Bottles at 2/9 per dozen. Bottles charged, but allowed for when returned. 

Sole Proprietors:


We are also Sole Proprietor of the Celebrated COLEMAN'S EXTRACT OF MEAT & MALT WINE.
Montrose, Arbroath and Brechin review; and Forfar and Kincardineshire advertiser. - Friday 20 March 1891, page 8.

A few pints of Imperial Stout tend to leave me feeling rather dull. Maybe the meaty malt wine would help liven me up. The Victorians did like to put meat into alcoholic drinks, the weird buggers. Given all the weird shit being thrown into beer nowadays, I'm surprised no-one has started adding meat.

Monday, 17 January 2022

Happy New Year!

I think we can all agree that the last couple of years have been strange and scary. Two years after the scheduled date, I still haven't published "Blitzkrieg!". What could be stranger and scarier than that? 

I'm pretty sure I'll release it this year. After several years caged up, it's getting pretty angry. No, ugly angry. I'll be glad to see that back of the bastard. Preferably, as it mauls someone else.

I blame Alexei. Had he got his arse in gear and created the covers, Blitzkrieg would be gaily cavorting in a sunlit meadow. Rather than eating its own shit in a bed of filthy straw. Alexei had some pathetic excuse about needing to study. I never bothered when I was at university. Why should he?

Plague permitting, I've a few trips planned and a couple of others pencilled in. Corona is a real blessing to travellers. The internet had made travels far too simple. The virus adds a delightful randomness to the proceedings. Like planning a European tour in the summer of 1918. 

Every time I book a flight I wonder: "What are the chance of me actually taking it?" Nothing is more thrilling than checking the internet until the second before you leave for the airport that the flight hasn't been cancelled. Or wondering if you'll be let out of the country once you reach your destination. I love the Phineas Fogg feeling the uncertainty brings.

Maybe I'll be your way pushing my latest book. Which may or may not be "Blitzkrieg!". More likely, I'll be in Thailand/Aruba/Tenerife/Malaga/Malta/Folkestone with Mikey pushing as much bacon and booze down my throat as I can physically manage.

Happy New Year!

Sunday, 16 January 2022

Yet more Imperial Stout in Scotland

Continuing to move back in time, we're now before WW I. I see now why Watney was using the Combe brand for Stout in Scotland in the 1920s.

It's simply historical. Combe had clearly established a trade in Stout north of the border before the merger with Watney and Reid. As this advert from 1900 reveals:

IMPERIAL STOUT    Yellow Label.
DOUBLE    Do.    Green Do.
INVALID Do.    Red Do.
A. JACK. Grocer and Wine Merchant, 16 HIGH STREET; DINGWALL.
North Star and Farmers' Chronicle - Thursday 13 December 1900, page 7.
Note that, at this point, Imperial Stout was Yellow Label and Invalid Stout Red Label. It looks like they changed the label colours to fit in with Barclay Perkins.

Another advert reveals the prices for various beers, including Barclay Perkins Imperial Stout.

ALLSOPP’S INVALID STOUT,    1/9 per doz.
TENNENTS LAGER BEER,    2/6 per doz.
BASS & CO.’S PALE ALE,    2/3 per doz.
PRESTONPANS BEER,    1/2 per doz, pints.
„    ,,        2/3 per doz. quarts.
M‘EWAN’S THREE GUINEA ALE,    1/2 per doz. pints.
„    „    ,    2/3 per doz qts.
SCOTCH PORTER,     2/- per doz. quarts.
JEFFREY’S SUPERIOR TABLE BEER,     1/6 per doz. quarts.
Fife Free Press, & Kirkcaldy Guardian - Saturday 31 August 1907.

Unfortunately, no bottle size is specified. It's obviously not an Imperial pint. It works out to 2.5d per pint. To put this into context, a pint of draught Mild cost 2d at the time. The ones where a size of a pint is mentioned also seem too cheap. I think I have an explanation, though.

First, let's look at another advert.

Bass & Co.’s Pale Ale    2.5d per Pint.
„    „ No. 1 Ale    3d per Pint
Barclay Perkins' Imperial Stout,    2.75d per Pint
Lochside Pale Ale,    2d per Pint.
North Port Pale Ale,    2d per Pint.
Lager Beer    2.5d per Pint.
Table Beer (Bitter or Sweet), 2.25d per Quart Bottle.
All in Fine Condition.
Fine Old Scotoh Whisky, 3s and 3s 6d per Bottle.
Grand Value in Teas, 1s 6d, 1s 8d, ls 10d, and 2s per Lb.
Prompt and Careful Attention to all Orders.
Montrose, Arbroath and Brechin review; and Forfar and Kincardineshire advertiser. - Friday 11 February 1910, page 4.
Here a bottle size is specified, and it's a pint. But 2.75d is way too cheap. Simple explanation: it's not an Imperial pint, but a reputed pint. Which is two thirds of an Imperial pint. Making the price for a full pint 4.125d, which does sound about right. If you remember the last Scottish price list I posted, that specified reputed pints.

Though, as it's cheaper than Bass No. 1, which had an OG over 1100º, the implication is that it's weaker. Again, I'm pretty sure I have an explanation.

Remember that I mentioned I didn't have any Barclay's Imperial Stout brewing logs from this period? Well, they aren't the only source of information in the archives. There are also documents called "Gyle Summaries". They list each brew, giving barrels brewed and the costs. The column for OG mostly isn't filled in. But, as both bulk and standard barrels are listed, it's easy to work out the gravity.

I'd assumed That the two version of IBS was a post-WW I thing. It wasn't. The Gyle Summaries list both IBS and IBS ex. At 1100º and 1108º, respectively. Not a huge difference, really. It makes you wonder why they bothered.

Saturday, 15 January 2022

Another cool Guinness video

I loved bottle-conditioned Guinness so much. Never had it corked, mind



Dead impressed the bloke can pick the corked sample.


Let's Brew - 1890 Truman Imperial Stout

I'm still banging on about Imperial Stout. I hope you aren't getting bored yet.

Barclay Perkins wasn’t the only London brewery with an Imperial Stout up their sleeve. Fellow traditional Porter brewers Truman had a version of their own.

While not quite as strong as Barclay Perkins’, it’s still a pretty powerful beer. And the top dog, as you’d expect, among Truman’s Black Beers. A couple of which – Double Stout and Single Stout – it was parti-gyled with.

I could have guessed the components of the grist. Pale, brown and black malt were the basis of pretty much all London Black Beers from 1817 right through until the 1960s. There’s also quite a bit of sugar, described simply as “Garton”. Which is the name of the producer. I’ve guessed it was No. 3 invert.

All the hops were from the most recent season, 1889. Two types from Kent and one from Bavaria. Which in this period usually means Hallertau.

This period of Truman logs lacking any indication of FG, I’ve just had to guess. As there would have been a Brettanomyces secondary fermentation, the rate of attenuation would have been high for a beer of its strength. 

1890 Truman Imperial Stout
pale malt 14.75 lb 71.08%
brown malt 2.00 lb 9.64%
black malt 1.00 lb 4.82%
No. 3 invert sugar 3.00 lb 14.46%
Fuggles 120 mins 4.75 oz
Fuggles 60 mins 4.75 oz
Hallertau 30 mins 2.50 oz
Goldings dry hops 1.00 oz
OG 1097
FG 1025
ABV 9.53
Apparent attenuation 74.23%
IBU 120
SRM 41
Mash at 157º F
Sparge at 175º F
Boil time 120 minutes
pitching temp 60º F
Yeast Wyeast 1099 Whitbread Ale

Friday, 14 January 2022

Other Imperial Stouts after WW II

Just a quick post. Been busy today with what, I hope, will be my last exam ever. It was all a bit weird.

The name Imperial Stout was used by quite a few breweries after WW II. Mostly for pretty feeble beer. If you thought Barclay Perkins effort was a bit feeble, take a look at this lot. The weakest, from Russell, is only about the strength of Mild Ale. 

Sorry, I missed the weakest McEwan sample, which doesn't even reach 3% ABV.

Only the beers from Bass/Worthington (almost certainly the same beer) and Carlsberg come anywhere near to living up to the name.

Post WW II Imperial Stout
Year Brewer Beer OG FG ABV App. Atten-uation colour
1948 McEwan Imperial Stout 1047 1018.5 3.68 60.64%  
1949 McEwan Imperial Stout 1039.5 1017 2.90 56.96%  
1949 McEwan Imperial Stout 1046.4 1014.4 4.14 68.97% 275
1950 Carlsberg Imperial Stout 1077.1 1025.9 6.64 66.41% 315
1950 McEwan Imperial Stout 1043 1014.4 3.70 66.51%  
1950 Unknown Imperial Stout 1066.8 1017 6.49 74.55% 350
1951 Bents Imperial Stone Stout 1039.7 1006.8 4.28 82.87%  
1952 Bents Imperial Stone Stout 1041.3 1007.1 4.45 82.81% 100
1953 Bass Imperial Stout 1078.2 1025.1 6.90 67.90% 375
1954 Bents Imperial Stone Stout 1039.8 1006.5 4.34 83.67% 200
1954 Plymouth Brown Imperial Stout 1048.6 1018.5 3.89 61.93% 375
1954 Russells Imperial Stout 1041.6 1016.8 3.20 59.62% 175
1955 Bass Imperial Stout 1078.8 1018.4 7.90 76.65% 375
1955 Worthington Imperial Stout 1078.2 1017.3 7.97 77.88% 325
1956 Bass Imperial Stout 1077.5 1027.9 6.43 64.00% 350
1959 Plymouth Imperial Brown Stout 1045.1 1016.4 3.71 63.64% 350
1959 Russell Imperial Stout 1039.4 1014.2 3.26 63.96% 200
1966 Bass Imperial Stout 1077.2 1027.7 6.41 64.12% 312
Whitbread Gravity book held at the London Metropolitan Archives, document number LMA/4453/D/02/002.
Thomas Usher Gravity Book held at the Scottish Brewing Archive, document number  TU/6/11.





Thursday, 13 January 2022

Imperial Stout in Scotland again

We're between the wars now. Sorry if it's all Imperial Stout. You know what I'm like when I get started on a topic.

It seems that Barclay Perkins wasn't the only London brewery flogging Imperial Stout in Scotland. Not even the only one with a Red Label Stout.

I say brewery. Brand, would be more accurate. The Combe brewery closed almost immediately after the formation of Watney, Combe, Reid in 1899. The same fate befell Reid's plant. What's odd, is that in London the Combe name was only used for Brown Ale. Their Stouts were branded as Reid.

Combe's Stout might have been called Red Label, but was it really comparable to the Barclay Perkins beer? After all, it's also billed as "Nourishing Stout" which could mean something pretty weak.

 These minimum prices agreed by the publicans of Aberdeen suggest that they were of a similar strength:


Per Dozen Reputed Pints. Per Dozen Imperial Half Pints. Per Dozen Splits.
Bass. Allsopp and Worthington Beers 7/- 6/- 4/6d
No. 1 Bass 15/- - 7/6d
No. 2 Bass  - - 7/-
Barclay Perkins, Combe’s and Guinness' Stout 8/- 5/-
Aberdeen Press and Journal - Thursday 17 September 1931, page 1.



Per Reputed Pint. Per Imperial Half Pint. Splits.
Bass, Allsopp and Worthington Beers  8.5d 6.5d 5.5d
Bass No. 1 1/3d - 9d
Bass No. 2 - - 7d
Barclay Perkins & Combe's Imperial Red Label Stout 9d - 5.5d
Brown Stout and Guinness Stout  8.5d 5.5d
Draught Beer  7d per pint; 3.5d per half pint    
Aberdeen Press and Journal - Thursday 17 September 1931, page 1.

As the two cost the same, it's safe to assume that they were of roughly similar strength. Also, a bit stronger than Bass Pale Ale. But nowhere near as strong as Bass No. 1, which was a round the same gravity as the the export version of Barclay Perkins Imperial Stout.


Wednesday, 12 January 2022

Let's Brew Wednesday - 1924 Barclay Perkins IBS Export

Continuing with my Imperial Stout theme, I thought I'd throw in an interwar recipe.

It seems to have taken a couple of years after WW I before Barclay Perkins brought back their powerful Imperial Stout. But, unlike the rest of their range, it returned at full strength.

I would tell you exactly how it differed from the version of 1914. Except I don’t have any brewing records of it from that period. Which is a bit irritating.

As you would expect, the grist is packed with roasted malts, three in total: brown, amber and black malt. At this point, Barclay Perkins Stouts, unlike their Ales, contained no flaked maize. Though that would have changed by the 1930s.

At 16 lbs per quarter (336 lbs) of malt, the hopping is very heavy. Which makes sense in a beer which wouldn’t be consumed for several years. All were from East Kent: Golding Varieties from the 1924 harvest, Cobbs and Goldings from 1923. The latter two had been cold stored. So, all pretty fresh hops.

I’ve reduced the FG from the 1040º racking gravity based on analyses of the beer when sold. A couple of years of a Brettanomyces secondary fermentation knocked it down considerably.

1924 Barclay Perkins IBS Export
mild malt 12.00 lb 53.33%
brown malt 2.75 lb 12.22%
amber malt 3.75 lb 16.67%
black malt 1.50 lb 6.67%
No. 2 invert sugar 2.50 lb 11.11%
Goldings 135 mins 4.50 oz
Goldings 90 mins 4.50 oz
Goldings 30 mins 4.50 oz
Goldings dry hops 1.50 oz
OG 1103.5
FG 1022
ABV 10.78
Apparent attenuation 78.74%
IBU 132
SRM 49
Mash at 146º F
After underlet 154º F
Sparge at 170º F
Boil time 135 minutes
pitching temp 58º F
Yeast Wyeast 1099 Whitbread ale



Tuesday, 11 January 2022

Barclay Perkins Imperial Stout in Scotland (again)

I'm going to gradually move back in time as I dig deeper into Imperial Stout. Which logically means that we're starting at the end.


"The Best Products of nature combined in...
Milk Stout

The best products of nature are combined each pint of this stout. Malt and hops for nutrition and ail the goodness of 10 ozs. of pure dairy milk for energy. 


You can still enjoy the original B.P. Imperial (Red Label) Stout
Dundee Evening Telegraph - Thursday 07 March 1940, page 4.

From the way this advert is worded, it's obvious that Milk Stout had replaced the older Imperial Stout and reduced it to a footnote. This doesn't seem to have lasted long, as a few years after the war Imperial Stout was being advertised on its own:


"A Meal in itself"
Dundee Evening Telegraph - Wednesday 14 December 1949, page 3.

Just the sort of meal I like. A liquid one.

This is the last advert I can find for Imperial Stout. It's just a couple of years before the merger with Courage.

"THE STOUT for the REAL Stout Drinker the traditional
Aberdeen Evening Express - Saturday 11 April 1953, page 5.

The label surprised me. That's the style they used before WW I. It looks awfully old-fashioned.And very different from the label on the full-strength version.

I'll leave you with some more analyses. Just making sure I get at least a few numbers in.

Weak Imperial Russian Stout 1925 - 1937
Year Beer OG FG ABV App. Atten-uation Price size package
1925 Imperial Stout 1060.3 1016.1 5.75 73.30%   pint bottled
1925 Imperial Stout 1060.3 1020.6 5.14 65.84% 8d pint draught
1935 Imperial Stout 1061.8 1014.2 6.20 76.97% 6d to 9d pint bottled
1937 Imperial Stout 1061.2 1010.1 6.69 83.50% 6d & 7d half pint bottled
Whitbread Gravity book held at the London Metropolitan Archives, document number LMA/4453/D/02/001.