Friday, 21 November 2014

30% off my Lulu paperbacks, 50% off my hardbacks

The 30% discount on paperbacks has been extended until the end of Monday (24th November) with this code:

FLASH30

But there's an incredible 50% off hardbacks over the same period with this code:

HC50

That's an amazing deal. I'd advise not just getting Porter! but the whole Mega Book Series: Mild! plus, Bitter! and Strong!.


Barclay Perkins Bookstore



Some people have mentioned that Lulu wouldn't let them ship to a US address. If you're in the right bit of Lulu it shouldn't be a problem. Just make sure you're in the Lulu US bookstore.









This code may only work in the US Lulu bookstore.

Denver day one

I've tried to make this tour as easy as possible. Which is why my flight is at the very reasonable hour of 11 am. Why make myself get up in the middle of the night if there's no need to?

Though I've already got my boarding card printed, I show up pretty early at the airport. Why? General paranoia - I had a bad experience checking in with United at O'Hare airport in Chicago - and I plan getting breakfast there. There's always somewhere serving breakfast in an airport.

Once past security, I check a map to see what my dining options are. There's something called a grill that looks my best bet. But that's at another set of gates which is a train ride away. I'd rather stay closer to where I'm going to board, so I check out the nearby options. None sound very promising. First one I get to has a sign outside saying "Breakfast being served". A glance at the tables confirms that they have the egg and bacon style stuff I crave.

It's called Africa Lounge. That's why I hadn't been very hopeful of finding a fry-up. The name seems to only refer to the décor, which is kitschily African. I don't give a toss as long as I get my bacon fix. What to drink with it? Coffee, obviously, to wake me up. Orange juice for some vitamins. A double Jack Daniels because, well, I can. And that's what I usually tuck into in US airports. I order a second when I'm half-way through my food.

The plane is packed. I'd already had emails offering me $250 if switch to a later flight. No chance. At the gate they asked again a few times. The flight is uneventful so I liven it up with a couple of whiskies. I realise now how far out of my way Denver is - it's a 3.5 hour flight.


I've been to Denver before, back in 1989 when I was still working in the airline industry. The airport doesn't look familiar. Then again, afer racking my brain for many minutes, all I can remember of the city is a steak house close to my hotel where I ate in a couple of times. It was much like the one where Homer Simpson attempts a steak-eating challenge. A 24 oz steak - did I really eat that? I was a strange person when younger.

As my taxi bumps along the freeway towards town I realise it's a different airport. This one is much further out of town. Not that I expect I would have recognised the old one. I've been through so many recently that they're all blurring into one.

The weather isn't bad. A pleasantly mild 15º C.

I'm stopping at what looks like a pretty nice hotel, the Magnolia. It's right downtown, in a former bank. Sadly, the city centre is as bland and dismal as I remember it.

After opening my room door I pause for a while, jaw scraping the carpet. I've got a suite. It's bigger than most of my friends' Amsterdam flats. The kitchen is double the size of the one I have at home. Unfortunately, I don't have much time to appreciate it. It's already 4 pm and today's event is at 6. I've just time to nip to the 7 Eleven to buy some water and to discover that ordinary shops don't sell beer in Colorado.


Hogshead is already pretty full when my taxi drops me off outside. So full, that there are punters seated on the patio. It's warm enough for that. They've brewed a couple of my recipes: 1865 Lovibond XX, some of it in a wooden firkin, and a cask-conditioned Stout based on Barclay Perkins 1928 OMS.

Jake Gardner and Englishman Steve Kirby greet me when I enter. How did they know it was me? When I see my handsome face smiling out from a poster advertising the event, I understand why.

I'm impressed by the number of handpulls - seven in total. Steve tells me that 60% of their beer is sold in cask form. Or is "proper beer" as he calls it. I'm not going to disagree with him. I love me some cask. So I get stuck into some straight away. Really good stuff - properly conditioned, served through a sparkler and not too cold. I could drink it all night. Sorry, I do drink it all night.

After a while Todd Alström turns up with a pile of BeerAdvocate magazines. It's good to see him again. We always have a good laugh. There's a decent crowd again - must be at least 50.


By the time it's showtime, I've had time for a few pints. I speak better with a properly wetted throat. We attempt to use a PA, but it's picking up a radio signal that annoyingly chatters away behind me, like an unappreciative audience. It's a small, if crowded, room, so I do it the old-fashioned way: shouting.

After my 20-minute spiel (or was it 30? I find it hard to estimate, I get so caught up in the sound of my own voice) about the beers and historic brewing in general, it's time to get down top the serious business of selling books. Pretty quickly they're all gone and my money box is overflowing with dosh.

They've a food truck and I tuck into a barbecue sandwich. Just what I needed. I've had nothing to eat since my whiskey-accompanied breakfast.

A few of us stay behind after closing, shooting the shit and supping the cask. It's all great fun.

Tomorrow I've a free day in Denver. Todd has offered to share a few beers. Can't say no to that






This is where I either beg or order you to buy my book. You can choose which you want to listen to. Please buy my book. Buy my book you tight bastard.

The Home Brewer's Guide to Vintage Beer.















Africa Lounge
Seattle-Tacoma International Airport,
17801 International Blvd.,
Seattle, WA 98158.


Magnolia Hotel
818 17th Street,
Denver, CO 80202.
http://www.magnoliahotels.com/denver/magnolia-hotel-denver.php


Hogshead brewery
4460 W 29th Ave,
Denver, CO 80212.
http://www.hogsheadbrewery.com

Thursday, 20 November 2014

Seattle day two

I begin my day with a stroll to a nearby coffee shop for, er, coffee. The crusty-ish vibe of the place reminds me a bit of Amsterdam. Before all the yuppies moved in. Hang on. I'm probably one of those yuppies, aren't I?


I've an 11 am appointment at Pike Brewing. I'm meeting Charles Finkel, founder of said brewery, and Joe Walts of Narrows Brewing in Tacoma. I've an event there later today to which he'll be driving me.

As it's not far from my hotel, I stroll down there, taking in a little more of the city. The streets leading down to the sea are unfeasibly steep, like those in San Francisco. Thankfully it's only the last section of the roads. The rest of the city is reasonably flat. Unless, like me, you're used to dead flat.



Pike Brewing is just past Pike Place Market, a throbbing mass of indoor market halls strung out between 1st Avenue and the waterfront. I'm really tempted to have a quick look around. I love indoor markets. And outdoor ones, for that matter. But I'm running a little late. I don't want to take the piss.


A polite young waitress asks me if I want to eat. "I'm here to meet Charles Finkel" She sits me down and goes off to look for him. I'd heard about the legendary collection breweriana. It doesn't disappoint. Every kind of object you can imagine: trays, poster, postcards, mirrors, glasses, bottles, bottle openers, statues - you name it. There's scarcely and inch of wall space not covered with some beer-related object. Dead cool.


I've plenty of time to investigate as the waitress doesn't immediately reappear. It's taking a while. Eventually she comes back and hands me a telephone. Charles is on the other end. Due to an organisational cockup, he's not on site. We have a brief chat and he seems a really nice bloke.

Joe hasn't arrived and I wait for him at the bar with a glass of Stout. Seems silly to sit beerless in a brewery. Definitely not the sort of thing I'd do. He apologises when he finally arrives. Heavy traffic has made his journey from Tacoma take much longer than anticipated. People coming into town have clogged the motorways.

We get shown around the brewery - the brewhouse shoe-horned into a tight space between the bar and restaurant - by a very enthusiastic and friendly guide. She tells us it's one of only two gravity-fed breweries in the USA. Downstairs where fermentation takes place, there's more room, though it's fairly well filled with all the shiny stuff you'd expect in a modern brewery. And, inevitably, there are oak barrels. Though also piles of golden gate kegs. Which I guess they're using as substitutes for casks.

Once we've given the brewery the once-over, we retire to the museum room to sample a set of samples. I'm amazed that Kilt Lifter, a Scotch Ale, is their biggest seller. I thought it was various shades of Pale Ale that sold best over here.

We would eat here, but it's getting late. The event at Narrows Brewing is scheduled for 3 pm. And we need to drive to Tacoma.

"We can order some food in when we get to the brewery, if you like." Sounds good to me.

We have a great view of Mount Rainier as we speed southwards towards Tacoma. It's a massive snow-clad volcano looming over everything. Tacoma is a fair distance from the centre of Seattle - about 40 km - but fortunately the roads are pretty clear.


Narrows Brewing is in the west of Tacoma on the, er, narrows. It's part of a marina complex that was once a saw mill. When we arrive Joe is relieved to see a barbecue stall outside. No need to order in food. I get a brisket sandwich with a side of cornbread. Really good stuff. The cornbread is incredibly dense, more like cake than bread.

There's time for a quick tour of the brewery before showtime. The equipment is very new and very shiny, but doesn't completely fill the space. There are fewer fermenters than you would expect. Lack of fermentation capacity is why we didn't do a collaborative beer. The explanation is simple: the building is timber framed and can carry a limited amount of weight, which limits the number of fermenters that can be installed. A 30-barrel fermenter filled with 30 barrels of beer is a fair old weight.

On the way into the bar I spot some familiar pictures of a bridge. One collapsing and I suddenly twig where I've heard of Tacoma Narrows before: it's the suspension bridge that twisted and tore itself apart in 1940.


//www.youtube.com/embed/j-zczJXSxnw

There's a panoramic view of its replacement from the bar. Sadly my photo of it is too crap to use.

Narrows are releasing an Old Ale. It's a blend of Winter Ale which has been aged for a year in wine barrels with a fresh version of the same beer. They also threw in some Brettanomyces claussenii for that authentic aged flavour. I'm giving a short talk on Stock Ale, a topic dear to my heart.

There's a decent crowd of 40 to 50 by the time I stand up to speak. Not sure how long I speak. Once I open my mouth time seems to stand still, at least for me. Doubtless it's stretching to infinity for the poor bastards who have to listen to it. I get a couple of laughs, which is usually a good sign. And no-one throws anything at me, other than questions. I'm becoming surprisingly comfortable with public speaking. Not sure why. By nature I'm the shy, retiring type.

When the last question has been fielded, Joe takes a group of us down into the basement, where he has a few oak barrels full of maturing beer. Judging by how many of these things I've seen of late, the demand for barrels must be shooting up. I wonder if brewing will eventually soak up all the supply of second hand casks?

We share a few beers and a chat then Joe drives me back to my hotel. It's still pretty early. Which means I've time to drop by a Vietnamese restaurant I spotted earlier for a spot of Pho. It really hits the spot. I love me some Pho and I'm not disappointed. They even have some decent beer.

Once again a tot of Laphroaig gently pushes me into sleep's embrace. Goodnight Seattle. Tomorrow it's Denver.





Buy my book. Even if you already own it. You may misplace or have knicked your first copy.

The Home Brewer's Guide to Vintage Beer.













The Pike Brewing Company
1415 First Avenue,
Seattle, WA 98101
Telephone: (206) 622-6044
(206) 622-8730
http://www.pikebrewing.com


Narrows Brewing Company
9007 S 19th St,
Tacoma, WA 98466.
http://www.narrowsbrewing.com


local pho
2230 3rd Ave
Seattle, WA 98121
Telephone: (206) 441-5995
http://www.localpho-seattle.com

Wednesday, 19 November 2014

Seattle day one

I'm just back from my latest spin around the US. Nine days in the Pacific Northwest and Denver promoting my book. And, of course, meeting people, drinking and generally having the sort of good time only beer can facilitate.

It went pretty well. Like clockwork, really, despite a fairly complicated schedule, including four cities, three internal flights and an international train journey. I may finally be getting the hang of this stuff. I've learned from my previous trips. One thing in particular: don't eat in Golden Corall. Unless you like throwing up all day (I don't).

We'll start at the beginning, with me heading to Schiphol in a taxi.

When you fly to the US, you get a extra security grilling at the gate. I dread it. On my first two trips stateside this year they plucked me out, took me off to a separate room and subjected me to a minute examination of my baggage and a near strip search. They let me keep my trollies on, but that was it. It's a lovely way to start a long journey.

I've had a couple of calming whiskies at the bar, but I'm still apprehensive as I approach the security check. Try not to sweat, I'm telling myself. If only I really had that much control over my body. At the end of the process they attach a little sticker to the back of your passport. The agent looks at my collection and says with a wry smile:

"I see you've been through here a lot this year. And received special attention."

"Yes, I'm getting used to being strip-searched."

He smiles and waves me through. It's a good start.

The flight takes a northerly route over Iceland, Greenland and northern Canada. An icy wasteland of bleached beauty. At times it's hard to tell if the white expanse below is cloud or ice, save when a rocky mountain top pierces the white blanket. For once I wish I'd opted for a window seat. The bloke next to my snaps away for much of the journey. I'd have done exactly the same.

We arrive in Seattle at noon, leaving me three hours before my first appointment. Just about enough time to get a taxi to my hotel, orientate myself and get another taxi to the meeting point, Reuben's Brews in Ballard, a suburb to the north of the city centre. I've arranged to meet a few people there before heading off around other nearby breweries.


Reuben's Brews is tiny by any standards. It resembles a small car repair shop. A rollup garage door emphasises this impression. Despite its tiny size, the brewery also houses a tasting room which spills onto the parking spaces in front of it. I'm barely out of the taxi when I'm greeted by Don, who has soon pushed a pint of Alt into my hand. Ah, the first beer of the trip and my first in the Northwest. It slips down a treat.


The other appointees trickle up and soon we've a small crew assembled, sitting between the fermenters and the mash tun. After a while we stroll down the street to Stoup, another slightly larger brewery only a couple of blocks away. It has a similar look, with a roll up door behind which are a few tables and chairs. It's large enough for you not to be sat amongst the fermenters. A mostly young crowd fills it up pretty well. Like most breweries I've visited recently, a row of oak barrels lie sleepily between all the shiny stainless steel. Does everyone barrel age now?


Our next destination, while still in Ballard, is slightly more distant so we drive there. Well, I don't do any actual driving. I sit in the passenger seat while someone else does all the work. This older brewery is different. For a start Maritime Pacific Brewing has a proper pub at its front, with a full kitchen. Though rather than a brewpub, it's a production brewery with an attached restaurant/bar.

It being Friday evening, it's unsurprisingly busy. Though the owner, George Hancock, takes time to show us around his kit, which is completely separated from the pub. It's a pretty decent size, with fermenters reaching up towards the ceiling. Inevitably, leaning against one wall is a rack of oak barrels.


Back in the pub, I drink a cask Double IPA enthusiastically. Rather too enthusiastically, given its strength. Cask is once again displaying its greatest advantage over keg: drinkability. Weird how many people say American-style IPA doesn't work on cask. I hold the opposite view: it really lifts them.

As I haven't eaten in a while, and despite my body thinking it's the middle of the night, I indulge in deep-fried battered bacon strips. I can feel my arteries clogging with every bite.


Maritime isn't quite the end of the night. Don drives me over to the other side of town where a brewery has just started up in part of the former Rainier complex. Rainier having been the local regional brewery, named after the volcano that looms behind the city.

Machine House, run by two British expats, concentrates on cask. Five handpulls stand to attention on the bar and there are no haunched keg fonts to be seen. My choice is easily made - they've got a Dark Mild. No way I'm going to pass that up.


The industrial origins of the building are plain to see. It's stripped down to the point of being Spartan, but that might just be because it isn't quite finished yet. It hasn't been open long. Rough and ready, I'd call it.

And that's it for the evening. I'm amazed I've managed to stay up until 11 pm. And that my body doesn't think it's time to get up rather than go to bed. A nightcap of duty-free Laphroaig puts me in a sleepytime sort of mood and I glide peacefully into the land of nod.






Here's the book I was tarting. Please buy it.

The Home Brewer's Guide to Vintage Beer.
















Reuben's Brews
1406 NW 53rd St,
Seattle,
WA 98107.
Phone: +1 206-784-2859
http://www.reubensbrews.com



Stoup Brewing
1108 NW 52nd St.
Seattle, WA 98107-5129
Phone: +1 206-457-5524
http://www.stoupbrewing.com



Maritime Pacific Brewing
1111 NW Ballard Way,
Seattle, WA 98107.
Phone: +1 206-782-6181
http://maritimebrewery.com/



Machine House Brewery
5840 Airport Way S #121,
Seattle,
WA 98108.
Phone: +1 206-402-6025
http://www.machinehousebrewery.com/

Tuesday, 18 November 2014

30% off my Lulu print books

until the end of Thursday (20th November) with this code:

FLASH30

Treat yourself to Porter! for Christmas.


Barclay Perkins Bookstore



Some people have mentioned that Lulu wouldn't let them ship to a US address. If you're in the right bit of Lulu it shouldn't be a problem. Just make sure you're in the Lulu US bookstore.









This code may only work in the US Lulu bookstore.

Pilsener and WW I

 I keep stumbling upon dead interestring stuff with my wide searches of the newspaper archive. This is all about German beer in Britian in 1914.

The war caused considerable problems in the supply of Lager. In the early years, it was because much had come from the now hostile powers of Austria-Hungary and Germany. Later it would be U-Boats making supply from neutral countries impossible.

On the outbreak of war, people felt it their patriotic duty to boycott everything German:

"All Germany commodities have been barred from the London clubs. Hot as the weather is, nobody dreams of asking for a Pilsener!"
Cheltenham Looker-On - Saturday 15 August 1914, page 8.
This is just weird:

"WAR DECLARED ON GERMAN BEERS BY CHELTENHAM ALE.
"Stoppered Press."—An ultimatum has been delivered by Cheltenham Ale to Pilsener and Lager beers : —That as they are German beers and have invaded the territory where better and more wholesome beers are brewed, and as these beers are brewed from local resources and have the recommendation of local, medical and lay opinions, that in future they are required to confine themselves to their own territory under pains and penalties being tried and found quite unsuited to the British Liberal Conservatism."Cheltenham Looker-On - Saturday 29 August 1914, page 11.
This next text is from a newspaper article which seems to be a piece of fiction. But it does contain some fascinating information.

"I happened to be in London the next few days and found my way, in spite of the prevailing gloom, some my old haunts. Curiosity led me to the "Ye Olde Gambrinus," that famous haunt of Germans, where excellent Pilsener beer and more excellent sausage is the great attraction. But when I entered what a change! "Ye Olde Gambrinus" had become a '"Cafe Brasserie," waiters Saxon and Bavarian, had given place spruce Frenchmen, and the glorious placards of the veritable Pilsen and Munchen beers had disappeared. The crowd was still cosmopolitan. Little Oddy still flitted, smiling, here and there. But it was all strange. Now, truth to tell, I love German beer, and I had come with the hope a long draught even at the expense of my patriotism. Around people were sucking syrups and dallying with liqueur. I called the waiter.

"Pilsen." I murmured. He shook his head.

"We have some excellent lager," he said, suavely. "Brewed in Holland."

"I'll try it." I said disdainfullv. Try I did — and again — and once more. It was really excellent. Clever fellows those Dutchmen. Got just the right touch. It was really difficult to say which was the better. I tried recall the pleasures of past Pilsener — then called for another Dutch. Excellent. I went home that night in better frame of mind than for months past. What matter if the war did last for years. We could stick it, and we were bound to win. Then I thought of Charlie Smithson. He, too, I remembered, liked a glass or two of Pilsener. I must cheer him by sharing my knowledge.

But it was some weeks before I saw again—he was a great deal from home, and so was I. But I passed him one day in the street as I was hurrying to my train. He certainly looked more cheerful, and filled his clothes better.

"Come up and see me," he called out, as I rushed past.

"Right oh!" I replied.

So that, night I determined to do so. Rachel was still knitting.

"I'll stroll up to Smithson's," I said casually, after dinner.

"Knit 3, 1 over, pull over 1 — don't be late," murmured Rachel.

I went, and as I toiled up the hill I devoutly hoped that Smithson was not in one of his gloomv moods. If he is, I reflected, I'll (excision by Censor). I noticed a flat cart coming down the hill, and as it drew nearer I observed that it had a load of empty cases. And as I glanced again I saw. in bold letters, the words "Brewed in the Royal Brewery at Amsterdam" stamped on the cases. "Heavens!" I cried as a thought came me, and I pressed on.
Newcastle Journal - Saturday 28 November 1914, page 3.
Ye Olde Gambrinus really existed and was a German pub and restaurant. It didn't take it long to change its name after the war started.

A postcard of Ye Olde Gambrinus

It's fascinating, but not so surprising that Dutch Lager was brought in as a replacement for beers from the Central Powers. The author even handily tells us which brewery it comes from: Amstel. Though not in so many words.

Here's some more about the Gambrinus:

"By the beginning of the twentieth century the largest "beer hall" appears to have been "Ye Olde Gambrinus" with branches in both Regent Street and Glasshouse Street in Piccadilly. This fiem gave itself various plaudits including "The Home of Lager Beer in England" and "the Largest Original Beer Hall in England". Its drinks included genuine Munich Pshorrbräu and Kulmbacher "Monchshof " on tap."
"Migration and Transfer from Germany to Britain 1660 to 1914" edited by Stefan Manz, Margit Schulte Beerbühl, John R. Davis, 2007, page 154.

Now we know exactly what the some of the beers it sold were: Pshorrbräu from Munich and Monchshof from Kulmbach. I think the authors are displaying a lack of knowldge of London geography. Glasshouse Street runs behind Regent Street:

OS map of 1896
That part of London must have been popular with Germans - the London Pavillion Music Hall on the far right of the map housed a Spaten beer hall

In reality, Gambrinus was a single pub with two entrances:

"The Gambrinus has entrances in both Regent Street and Glasshouse Street."
"The Gourmet's Guide to London" by Newnham-Davis, 1914, page 378.
I'm shocked at how many German beer halls London had before WW I.

Lots more about Pilsener and WW I to come.

Monday, 17 November 2014

Pure beer

Just about as soon as the Free Mash Tun Act became law in 1880, some began tro campaign for "pure beer", that is beer brewed from malt, water, hops and yeast alone.

Brewers didn't share their enthusiasm for all-malt beers. They were mostly happy with the new situation, which allowed them to use unmalted grains like flaked barley or flaked rice.


"PURE BEER.
Brewers have had a bomb thrown among them by the advocates of pure beer. A few months ago, in order to allow time for some experiments, the Beer Materials Committee would not sit as soon as was expected. These experiments have now been concluded, and the results are not quite what the trade expected. When under examination last year, among others, Mr Cornelius O'Sullivan, who is far and away the leading man in the profession, and who is Bass's brewer, declined to commit himself to the assertion that no one could tell by the analysis of beer from what material it had been made. At present he knew of no way by which those materials could be identified. Other brewers of standing went a step further, and said it was a matter of impossibility, as the chemical changes which take plare during mashing, boiling, and fermenting processes entirely masked the nature of the cereals or sugar used. With this the Government officials did not disagree. and so could see no way by which brewers could he checked if a law were passed directing them to state on the labels attached to their barrels from what materials the beer contained in them was manufactured. After a good deal of evidence of this class had been given, the pure beerites asked for an adjourment, as they were unable to carry their case any further just then. There were no more witnesses ready, so the committee agreed. This looked very much as if brewers had come out with colours flying, and they were elated accordingly. The resources of the analyst were not, however, exhausted. Under the supervision of representatives of the pure beer party a nunber of brewings were made from different materials, and the beers, on being fixed and ready for sale, were sampled, and the samples handed to the well-known chemist, Dr Skidrowitz, to see if he could find out, whether they were all malt beers or whether substitutes had heen used. The doctor succeeded at length in being able to tell whether anything besides malt was employed. Thus the revenue objection to a change in the law is overcome, and it seemed to be a formidable objetion removed. During the Beer Materials Committee's inquiry a large amount of evidence was forthcoming as to the necessity for using "adjuncts," with malt made from British barley, buecause the latter had not had sufficient sun. Leading brewers said they could not turn out the bright, comparatively light, and lager-like beers now offered to the public from British-grown grain. Dr. Skidrowitz is quite satisfied that this is a mistake, and the results of the experimental brewings which have been nade corroborate him. Furtherinore, the greatest authority on the Continent, Professor Aubry, of Munich, who cannot have a bias in favotur of British-grown grain, agrees that Britisg barley is as good as the standard article on the Continent, and that, in his opinion, the British brewer has no excuse for using substitutes. The very best Pilsener beer comes from Munich, and it is to be observed that throughout Bavaria substitutes for malt are forbidden. All infractions of this law are  punished by imprisoument plus a heavy fine.
Aberdeen Journal - Thursday 24 February 1898, page 6.

There's lots of fascinating information in there.

No surprise that the brewers, wanting to maintain the status quo. asserted it was impossible to tell what a beer had been brewed from. It sounds a dubious argument to me. And that they hadn't tried very hard to see if they could.

When Dr. Skidrowitz proved that you could, they just changed their argument, claiming you couldn't brew Light Bitters from purely English barley. Note how they are called "Lager-like". I've seen such beers quoted ass being a reason why Lager-brewing didn't take of earlier in Britain. Breweries were able to make something good enough to satisfy the public, with risky expenditure on expensive new plant.

Though it is true that these beers generally included adjuncts to keep both the body and colour light. Burton brewers tended to prefer sugar, while those in London mostly went with maize or rice. looking at late 19th-century grists, it may surprise some that an expensive top of the range Pale Ale contained a greater proportion of adjucts than the cheapest Milds and Porters.

I've had several reports back from home brewers who have made AK that the flaked maize definitely added to the character, resulting in a light, crisp beer. Sorrt of, er, Lager-like.

Surely the very best Pilsener comes from Pilsen, not Munich. In 1898 they'd only just about started brewing pale Lager. But, of course, Austria had no Reinheitsgebot so the pure beerites argument would collapse.

Sunday, 16 November 2014

German brewing in 1966 - kilning

We're just about done with malting, thank god. I've been struggling to keep my eyes open.

First it's the kilns themselves:

"Kilning.—Most kilns are single units. In addition to automatic direct coke firing, one finds direct and indirect oil firing, in which case a suitably-designed furnace will avoid "magpie" malts. However, oil containers are expensive and the construction is connected with a series of difficulties, so that interest has been shown in a gas-heated kiln, particularly as natural gas and refined gas is available in considerable quantities, and it is expected that its price will approach the prices of other fuels. The content of methane in natural gas and of hydrogen in processed gas results in combustion of these gases to water, so the air has a reduced drying effect. As a result, a 10% increase in ventilation is necessary and, when re-circulating, the amount of fresh air will also have to be increased. In passing, it is noted that automation of a kiln is a very profitable investment."
Journal of the Institute of Brewing, Volume 72, Issue 1, January-February 1966, page 17.

I wonder if they did go over to using natural gas? I'm pretty sure that it got cheaper in the 1970's and 1980's when supplies from Europe kicked in.

I wasn't quite sure what 'magpie' malt was, so I looked it up:

"High sulphur fuels, when burned, give rise to sulphur dioxide (SO2) and sulphur trioxide (SO3). One the one hand, these acid gases damage and corrode the kiln structure and add to atmospheric pollution. High levels may cause local discoloured marks on malt grains, producing 'magpie' malt."
"Malts and Malting" by D.E. Briggs, 1998, page 226.

It's what I had guesses - malt with two colours. But it's nice to have it confirmed.

Now it's about the kilning process itself.

"The various types of malt are kilned according to the beer requirements. For Pilsener and very light export beers a very pale but intensively kilned malt is required: colour, approximately 2.5° E.B.C.; protein modification, 37-40% Kolbach; coarse/fine grind difference, 1.5-2.0. Some maltings try to achieve a lower modification in order to improve the head of the beer. Even for the pale-coloured heavy beers (original gravity 16.5-17.5%) a very pale coloured malt is used."
Journal of the Institute of Brewing, Volume 72, Issue 1, January-February 1966, page 17.

There's so much about malting I don't understand. Like why a lower level of modification helps head retention. I suspect British brewers wouldn't bother with that and would just throw in some wheat instead. Because of the weirdness of the Reinheitsgebot, that wouldn't be allowed in a German bottom-fermenting beer.

Her's what Briggs has to say about Lager malts:

"The palest of the European products are Pilsen malts (Pilsener Malz). In the past these were undermodified but now they are fully modified and are prepared from barleys having moderate nitrogen contents. They are kilned at low temperatures to minimize colour formation. Typical analyses are E, at least 81% (EBC, on dry), fine-coarse extract difference 1-2%; TN, 1.68 (10.5% protein); Kolbach index 38-42%; moisture less than 4.5%; -amylase 40 DU; DP 240-300 ºW.-K.; saccharification time 10-15 min.; colour, 2.5-3.4 ºEBC; boiled wort colour, 4.2-6.2 ºEBC; wort pH, 5.9-6.0. Helles (pale; light) malts are rather similar, but are made from barleys richer in nitrogen. British lager malts are all pale and well modified. Analyses are usually in the ranges: HWE 300-310 lº/kg (on dry), TN, 1.55-1.75%; TSN, 0.5-0.7%; SNR, 31-41%; DP, not more than 70 ºIoB; moisture less than 4.5%; saccharification time less that 15 minutes. Colour may be 3.0 ºEBC. Because of the low temperatures used in kilning lager malts (finishing curing at e.g., 70 ºC; 158 ºF) are rich in enzymes and so sometimes give slightly higher extracts than pale ale malts, which are cured at higher temperatures (finishing at 95-105 ºC; 203-221 ºF), and have more characteristic flavours but lower enzyme activities."
"Brewing: science and practice", by Dennis E. Briggs, Chris A. Boulton, Peter A. Brookes and Roger Stevens, 2004, page 27.

Briggs says that the difference between Helles and Pilsner malts is the nitrogen content, while Narziss claims that they are a bit darker than Pilsenr malt:

"The West German export beers are somewhat darker. For these beers, as well as for the Bavarian pale-coloured lager beers, malt with a good modification and a colour of approximately 4° E.B.C. is required. Occasionally a certain percentage of "Wiener" malt with a colour 5.0-6.00 E.B.C. is used in the grist, although this malt is normally used for "Marzenbieren" (medium coloured beers). The dark Munich malts have a very wet and intensive germination and are kilned off at 100-105° C; as a result they obtain a good aroma. Owing to the lengthy kilning they are poor in enzymes and have to be mashed very carefully. They are used on their own, or together with approximately 1% coloured malt for the brewing of dark beer. For Marzenbiere they are blended to 50% with pale malt."
Journal of the Institute of Brewing, Volume 72, Issue 1, January-February 1966, page 18.

That's interesting. The colour quoted for Wiener malt is a good bit lower than Weyermann's specification, which gives it as 6-9º EBC. One of the biggest difference between British and German brewing are base malts. In Britain you've only really got a choice of two: pale malt of pils malt. While in Germany you've also got Wiener malt, two types of Munich malt and smoked malt.

Nice of Narziss to quote some grists. Though he doesn't mention one of my personal favourites for a dark Lager. It's what Hofmann id Hoheschwärz uses: 99% Vienna malt and 1% Farbmalz. Do Munich breweries still use Munich malt as a base for the Dunkles? I suspect Paulaner do, though they may have brought that back. Last time I tried it there was the distinctive nutty malt flavour which I associate with Munich malt. I'm sure it hadn't been there a few years ago.

Here's Brigg's take on darker malts:

"In German practice the next type is Viennese malt (Wiener Malz), which is used for making `golden' lagers. This is made from normally modified green malt kilned to a final temperature of about 90 ºC (194 ºF), giving a colour of 5.5-6.0 ºEBC. Munich malt (MuÈnchener Malz) is relatively dark, very well modified and aromatic and is made by germinating nitrogen-rich barley, steeped to a high moisture content, so that it is well grown (all acrospires at least three-quarters grown) and finishing germination warm, at 25 ºC (77 ºF). Kilning involves some stewing and curing is finished at 100-105 ºC (212-221 ºF), conditions causing appreciable enzyme destruction. This malt has a colour of 15-25 ºEBC. The wort is rich in melanoidin precursors and darkens on boiling, e.g., from 15 to 25 ºEBC. Other typical analyses are: E, 80%, (on dry); fine-coarse extract difference 2-3%; total protein 11.5% (TN, 1.84%); Kolbach index, 38-40%; saccharification time, 20-30 min.; wort fermentability, about 75% (compared to wort from Pilsen malt of about 81%). -Amylase and DP values are low, at 30DU and 140 ºW.-K. respectively. Analyses of a British made, Munich-style malt are: HWE, 300 lº/kg, (on dry); moisture 4.5%; TN, less than 1.65%, TSN less than 0.65%, colour about 15 ºEBC and DP at least 30 ºIoB."
"Brewing: science and practice", by Dennis E. Briggs, Chris A. Boulton, Peter A. Brookes and Roger Stevens, 2004, page 27.

I see that he agrees with Narziss about a finishing temperature of 100-105º C for Munich malt. And also tells us that it produces a less fermentable wort. Having looked at analyses of plenty of modern German Dunkles recently, and only four of tewnty four examples had attenuation of below 76%. So I guess most are using pils malt as base. I suppose this partly explains the rubbish degree of attenuation in 19th-century examples. They must have been producing even less fermentable worts back then.


He also agrrees with Narziss about Wiener malt being around 6º EBC. Clearly Weyermann are getting it wrong.

Next time we'll finally be getting into the brewhouse.

Saturday, 15 November 2014

Bottled beer in Egypt

More random stuff from by blind sweep through the newspaper archives.

This is a excerpt from an article about trade in Egypt.

"Bottled Beer.
Outside the Army of Occupation and the British community there is very little demand for the ordinary English beer, which, as has been stated in previous reports, is too heavy to suit the local taste, but a light kind of beer would be likely to find purchasers. The Acting Consul-General quotes the following passage from a report of the British Chamber of Commerce, which seems deserving of the attention of British brewers: "Continental brewers push the consumption of their article in Egypt by financing the owners of the 'brasseries' (bars), thus enabling them to establish these in good localities and in an attractive manner, thereby obtaining a large turn-over." A large brewery, fitted with the latest machinery, has been established on the outskirts of Alexandria by a Belgian Company. Light Pilsener beer is now being actively brewed, and it is probable that the Company will place tbeir beer on the market in two or three months. This will probably compete seriously with European beer.
Morning Post - Friday 30 December 1898, page 2.

First let's look at British beer exports to Egypt. They really weren't that big:

British beer exports to Egypt 1890 - 1930
1890 1900 1910 1913 1919 1920
6,591 18,597 20,600 20,530 10,408 9,796
1921 1922 1923 1924 1925 1926
11,619 11,305 8,592 8,971 9,840 10,760
1926 1927 1927 1928 1929 1930
10,760 10,510 10,510 10,659 12,571 14,603
Sources:
Brewers' Almanack 1928, page 115.
Brewers' Journal 1921, page 24
Brewers' Journal 1923, page 26
Brewers' Journal 1925, page 27
Brewers' Journal 1927, page 28
Brewers' Almanack 1928, page 115.
Brewers' Journal 1929, page 30
Brewers' Journal 1931, page 34

To put those numbers into context, in the same period around 20,000 barrels were exported to Malta. I don't need to tell you that Egypt's population is many times that of Malta. The anount is so small that it probably was mostly being drunk by British expats.

That British beer was too heavy for hotter countries is a complaint you often see towards the end of the 19th century when continental Lager brewers started to export their beers outside Europe. The growing popularity of Lager in the tropiocs had a serious impact on sales of British beer. That's one of the reasons Allsopp decided to install a Lager brewery in Burton: to be able to compete with European brewers in tropical markets.

The author clearly wasn't keen on the continental breweries buying their way into the Egyptian market. Even more surprising is a Belgian company building a brewery in Egypt. Especially as it would be brewing Pilsener. I'm not sure if anyone was brewing Pilsener in Belgium itself at the time. The style only really took off after WW I.

Friday, 14 November 2014

Brewing in WW II (part eleven)

We're almost at the end of another marathon series. Anyone still out there?

As I mentioned earlier, the food supply problems of WW I prompted the government to be very careful right from the start of WW II. They tried to ensure that as little food as possible was wasted. Even stuff that wasn't obviously food. Like waste yeast.

"Early in the war the salvage department of the Ministry of Supply invited the Institute of Brewing to go into the question of brewery waste products, and a committee was formed which collected the necessary information and made its report. Yeast was considered to be the most valuable of brewers' bye-products in view of the fact that one-half of its dry weight consists of readily digested protein while it also contains vitamins. Most of the surplus yeast in the large centres is utilized for human foods or is dried and used in the preparation of cattle foods. It was realized, however, that a good deal of the yeast from the smaller breweries in outlying districts and the smaller towns was not being utilized, and steps were taken to advise the farmers throughout the country of the value of yeast as a supplement to the pig food ration, with a view to overcoming this waste. Most towns and urban district councils organized a collection of household waste, and breweries in these districts had no difficulty in disposing of their waste yeast to them, and it is probable that Very little of this valuable foodstuff was wasted."
Journal of the Institute of Brewing Volume 52, Issue 3, May-June, 1946, pages 125 - 126.

The human food I guess would mostly be marmite. I didn't realise it was also used to feed animals, but I suppose that makes sense. There's no way you were going to persuade everyone to eat marmite. I wonder if it's still used in cattle food? Breweries produce a lot of yeast, far more than is needed to ferment subsequent batches. The excess needs to be disposed of somehow. Where does it go?

I mentioned that there were a host of wartime difficulties that I hadn't considered. Changes to the water supply is another one. It was all to do with the level of chlorination:

"For a number of years before the war the chlorination of water supplies as a supplement to nitration in order to reduce its bacterial content to a safe limit has been very generally practised, but the amount of chlorine present was usually too small to become noticeable and was never sufficient to have any deleterious effect when it was used for brewing. The quantity used during the war period, however, was often increased after damage of mains by bombing and much heavier quantities were necessary for short periods. No noticeable effect, however, seems to have been experienced by those breweries using the London supply. Although even an excess of chlorine is hardly likely to have any directly harmful effect either on yeast or beer, its effect on the pipes and mains through which it is conveyed does not appear to have received the attention it deserves. A case occurred in a town which had been severely blitzed, and it was found necessary to chlorinate the water supply to overcome suspected contamination. The writer found that this had been carried to excess, so much so that it had a corrosive effect on the copper-lined fermenting vessels of a brewery. Fortunately there is a simple antidote for chlorine and the necessary steps were taken to treat the water in the cold liquor tanks before any harmful effects occurred, but it is a matter that should be borne in mind, as others might not be so fortunate."
Journal of the Institute of Brewing Volume 52, Issue 3, May-June, 1946, page 126.

Is this still a problem? Mains water is often still very heavily chlorinated in Britain. I drink the tap water in Newark. It's like taking a mouthful of swimming pool. Hang on. I remember asking John Keeling about Fullers' water supply. He told me that they had to stop using their own wells because they became contaminated. They now used mains water which they first dechlorinated. I'd assumed that was flavour reasons but maybe it was really to protect their equipment.

That's the article itself done. Just the discussion to go. If I can be arsed.

Thursday, 13 November 2014

The beer Britain drinks

We're back with Sir William Harcourt's love of Pilsener. And a few more facts and figures.

In particular, it has numbers on the amount of beer imported into Britain and exported from Germany. To prove that in fact the amount of German beer entering Britain was tiny.

"THE BEER BRITAIN DRINKS.
SALE OF LAGER.
It is to be feared that Sir William Harcourt's reference to the partiality- of his friends for Pilsener beer will serve to increase the belief that this and other foreignmade beer 3 are popular in the United Kingdom. When one finds specialists making misleading statements the subject, it not surprising if the ordinary reader is led astray. Before the Beer Materials Committee one witness, Mr Gordon Salmond, a well-known consulting chemist, expressed the belief that thte quantity of Continental beer imported was considerable, the fact being that only 45,000 barrels of beer of all kinds were imported in 1896, the year in which gave his evidence. was followed Dr Moritz, joint author with Morris of the leading text-book on brewing, who told the committee that Pilsener beer came from North Germany. As a matter of fact, it is made at Pilsen, fifty miles from Prague.

I have been favoured (writes a London correspondent) with a copy of the first monthly number of what promises to be most useful publication, the Revenue Review, edited by Mr J. T. Mulqueen, chief of the Revenue staff in Falkirk and Linlithgow, who is well known by repute to all who take interest revenue matters. The first article this review deals with lager beer. I find that the writer is inclined to foster the delusion, for he refers to German beers being in considerable favour here. As are having just little too much of this German competition bogey, it is as well perhaps once for all to slay it. In 1891 we imported 33,728 barrels of beer; the following year, 38,881; in 1897 the quantity was 45,752; and last year the small quantities include not only imports from the Isle of Man, Germany, Austria, and the United States, but British beer returned by foreign customers as unsuitable.

When it is remembered that our consumption of British-made beer amounts to 36.5 millions of barrels per annum, to speak of German beer, the trade in which probably never reached 30,000 barrels, being largely in favour here, is an exaggeration. As the late Chancellor of the Exchequer has given these lager beers an advertisement, is will probably be useful to widen the question and make a comparison. The German Empire total exports were 1,244,479 hundreds of kilogrammes of beer in 1888; -the year following and 776,845 in 1890. If we step forward ten years find her figures for were 910,445; for 1899 the quantity was 966,812; and for last year 1,113,790. I may add that her exports of beer in 1886 and 1887 were much larger than 1888. Where outside the German Empire the increasing popularity of German beer is to be discerned is not therefore very obvious, except it be in her new possession, Kiao-Chau, or possibly among the Boxers captured in and around Pekin.

As regards British exports, suffice it to say that in they totalled 503,000 barrels, and last year 509,000. Pilsener, which Sir William Harcourt's friends affect, is, like Japanese saki, made solely from rice. It is much more intoxicating tnan the bottled beers usually sold in this country. Last year the total exported by Austro-Hungary was 916,102 hundreds of kilogrammes. This was decrease of 11.3 cent, on the figures for 1899. " Dundee Evening Post - Monday 01 April 1901, page 2.

You can see from this table just how insignificant imported beer was:

UK beer production, consumption, imports and exports 1890 - 1914
Production (bulk barrels) Production (standard barrels) Consumption (bulk barrels) Exports (bulk barrels) Exports (standard barrels) Imports (bulk barrels) % of consumption imported
1890 30,808,315 30,340,175 503,221 502,921 35,081 0.12%
1891 31,927,053 30,868,315 33,728
1892 38,881
1895 31,678,486 31,290,143 432,742 44,399 0.14%
1897 34,203,049 45,752
1900 37,105,042 37,091,123 36,668,274 487,643 510,845 50,875 0.14%
1903 37,153,978 55,560
1905 35,415,523 34,404,287 34,979,824 487,643 521,476 51,944 0.15%
1910 34,299,914 32,947,252 33,779,912 570,929 590,346 50,927 0.15%
1914 37,558,767 36,057,913 74,205
Sources:
Ireland Industrial and Agricultural, 1902, page 458.
Brewers' Almanack 1928, p. 110
“The Brewers' Society Statistical Handbook 1988” page 7
Manchester Evening News - Thursday 28 November 1901, page 3.
Brewers' Almanack 1928, p. 115
Brewers' Almanack 1955, p. 57
Dundee Evening Post - Monday 01 April 1901, page 2.

Imports increased a little in the years leading up to WW I, but still accounted for just 0.15% of consumption. And that's all imported beer, not just from Germany. Based on adverts of the period, I'd guess more beer was coming in from Scandinavia thabn from Germany.

Assuming a litre of beer weighs about a kilo, 100 kilos is about a hectolitre. Meaning you can take those numbers for German exports to be approximately the volume in hectolitres. 1,244,479 hl (the 1888 figure) is around 750,000 barrels, or about 50% more than Britain exported. The lowest figure quoted, 776,845 in 1890, is about 500,000 barrles, or about the same as UK exports.

Why did people think Pilsener was made from 100% rice? Just because it was so pale?

I love this sort of numbers fun.

Wednesday, 12 November 2014

Berlin in London

The early history of Lager in Britain I find fascinating. So I was delighted to discover another Munich beer hall in Victorian London.

I already knew about the Spaten place of Piccadilly Circus. But it turns out around the corner in Leicester square there was another, this time serving Pschorr beer.

"BERLIN IN LONDON.
Londoners who wish to spend an hour in a German brasserie will have no occasion to go to the Fatherland; for the palatial restaurant and hotel, which has been opened this week by Messrs Baker and Co., in Leicester-square, will, no doubt, be one of the great attractions and novelties of the metropolis. The new Grand Hotel and Brasserie de l'Europe offers to the public a combination of the cafe-restaurant and the beer-hall on the same lines as the brasserie which Parisians and Germans so much admire.

In the basement is a large lager beer hall, where, together with the finest brews from Munich, a number of German dishes and "delicatessen" will be served. The beers come from the vats of the famous Pschorr Brauerei at Munich and from the Burgerliches Brauhaus Pilsen. On the ground floor is the grand cafe, which both in appearance and in style will be found quite continental, while above is the Italian room, which it is intended to use as an a la carte restaurant.

This last achievement of the well-known architect, Mr Walter Emden, is the best thing he has ever done. The elevation show a freely-treated design in granite, with pilasters of green, while the upper portions of the structure is in terra-cotta. A noticeable feature will be found in the projecting corners, surmounted with turrets, which are covered with gilt copper - an effect quite new to London. The ornamental portions of the terracotta are picked out in gold, and the granite pilasters are finished with bronze sags and ornaments. From basement to roof the building is of fireproof construction, but an additional precaution has been taken by the erection of an outside staircase from the top floors. The lager-beer hall in the basement is decorated in Alhambra style, the walls being fanelled out and filled in with mirrors, while the dado is of marble. The grand cafe on the ground floor is elaborately decorated in the style of the German Renaissance, the panels of the walls being filled in both with mirrors and with pictures representing events famous in German history. In this room a striking effect is obtained by hanging from the beams and columns festoons of leaves and flowers in repousse copper, the fruit on these imposing garlands being represented by electric lamps. Generally speaking the colouring of the decorations is similar to that of a German cafe. gold being largely used in the ornamental portions. On the first floor is the Italian Renaissance room, which will be used as an a la carte restaurant. The panels on the walls are filled in alternately with silk and mirrors, and the general colouring is ivory white and gold. Columns and pilasters of Pavonazze marble and a dado of American maple are also features in the decoration of this apartment. A reception room in the Louis XVI. style adjoins the Italian Renaissance room. In the upper portion of the building are the sitting rooms and bedrooms of the hotel. These are all decorated and furnished in the most complete and modern manner. The main entrance of the hotel is in Leicester-place, and both the entrance hall and staircase are decorated in the style of the German Renaissance. Pictures illustrative of familiar German legends here play an important part in the architect's scheme. The hotel, which will be open this evening for business, is equipped with an elaborate lift, while the electric lighting and the sanitary arrangements are planned upon the most approved principles. The place bids fair to be as popular as the Taverne Pousset, on the Boulevard des Italiens, Paris. "
The Era - Saturday 23 September 1899, page 18.
I believe this is the earliest mention I've found of Pilsner Urquell on draught in London. Why did they have that and Pschorr beer? Probabky because Pschorr didn't brew a pale Lager at the time.

A couple of decades later, after all the animosity to Germans during WW I, I can't imagine anyone would have opened such an openly German establishment. Even now there's still a smouldering resentment of Germans in Britain and few restaurants or pubs s that style themsleves as German.

What were the beers on sale like? Luckily I've analyses of both brewies' beer from around the same period:

Pschorr beers 1885 - 1901
Year Beer OG FG OG Plato ABV App. Attenuation Acidity
1885 Export 1057.0 1017.9 14.07 5.00 67.31% 0.140
1895 Bock 1074.5 1041 18.10 4.28 44.93%
1896 Export 1057.8 1024.0 14.26 4.34 57.08% 0.108
1897 Export 1056.7 1020.5 14.00 4.64 62.57% 0.045
1901 Export 1053.5 1017.2 13.26 4.65 66.82% 0.072
Sources:
Wahl & Henius, pages 823-830
Brockhaus' konversations-lexikon, Band 2 by F.A. Brockhaus, 1898.


Bürgerliches Brauhaus beers 1885 - 1898
Year Beer OG FG OG Plato ABV App. Atten-uation Acidity
1883 Export 1049.9 1014.4 12.40 4.60 71.14% 0.180
1886 Pilsener 1047.8 1015.4 11.89 4.19 67.75%
1886 Lagerbier 1047.3 1012.7 11.78 4.49 73.15%
1886 Pilsener 1043.3 1014.5 10.83 3.73 66.51%
1886 Winter Beer 1044.9 1013.83 11.20 4.02 68.21%
1887 Lagerbier 1047 1012.61 11.72 4.47 72.27%
1888 Pilsener 1048.5 1015.0 12.07 4.34 69.07%
1888 Export 1048 1013.79 11.95 4.44 70.29%
1890 Exportbier 1054.6 1014.45 13.51 5.22 73.53% 0.320
1893 Pilsener 1053.2 1013.2 13.18 5.20 75.19% 0.320
1898 Schankbier 1043.0 1011.5 10.76 4.09 73.26% 0.112
1898 Lagerbier 1047.3 1012.6 11.78 4.50 73.36% 0.103
1898 Export 1055.9 1014.78 13.82 5.35 72.50%
Sources:
"Chemie der menschlichen Nahrungs- und Genussmittel" by Joseph König, 1889, pages 806 - 851
Wahl & Henius, pages 823-830
"Handbuch der chemischen technologie" by Otto Dammer, Rudolf Kaiser, 1896, pages 696-697
Chemie der menschlichen Nahrungs- und Genussmittel by Joseph König, 1903, pages 1102 - 1156

You can see that Pilsner Urquell hasn't changed much in terms of gravity and ABV. While Pschorr's Export is very different from a modern Dunkles: higher OG, much lower rate of attenuation and ABV.
Emden was a famous theatre architect, who designed many in London.

"Mr Emden's early commissions in theatrical work were to reconstruct the Globe, to alter the St. James's and the Royalty, and to build the Court Theatre - which in the meantime he has rebuilt. In 1872 Mr Emden was appointed architect to the Dublin Exhibition. He designed an opera house for Rome, which was not built, the Italian Government eventually declining the expenditure; but incidentally acquired a most useful experience of Italian styles. Terry's Theatre was a notable achievement of Mr Emden's - Mr Charles Wilmot, who was the original owner, committing himself unreservedly to the architect's ideas as to a fireproof structure, as Terry's Theatre undoubtedly is. Mr Emden was, by the way, one of the judges of the first firemen's exhibition. The original plans for the Garrick, the Trafalgar-square, and the Tivoli were Mr Emden's work; and he reconstructed the English Opera House, which we now know as the Palace Theatre. Mr Emden has also done a great deal of work in the provinces."
The Era, 6th of November 1897.

So there you go. Dead famous. Emden died in 1913. The building still stands on Leicester square, though it's no longer a hotel.