Sunday, 21 September 2014

Brewing in Denmark and Germany in 1960

I didn't want to let up on the Lager deluge while I was busy harvesting analyses. In the meantime I'll be plucking the plums from a 1960 article from the Journal of the Institute of Brewing about brewing in Germnay and Denmark. I don't know about you but I can't get enough of this stuff.

It was written by A. J. Mayfield of Truman. He'd won an award in 1959 and it seems to have allowed him to study in Denmark and Germany for a year. The article is a report of his studies.

First a quick introduction to brewing in the two countries:

"Introduction
In this study of certain Continental brewing methods, it was found essential to relate variations in procedure both to local taste and to the brewing laws prevailing in the areas concerned, in order to see how individual brewers satisfied local demands with the means at their disposal. Thus, Danish brewing, although founded on the Bavarian methods of last century, is now allowed far more scope in the matter of adjuncts and beer additives than is its German counterpart, and this provision is reflected in many aspects of the brewing process.

Classification for duty in the two countries is rather similar and involves a few well-defined groups of beers covering the whole gravity range, the tendency being for certain popular gravity types to be brewed at the top of the range allowed. The common beer in Denmark was at 1043° and in Germany at 1044°. German export beer, pale or dark, was generally at 1052°, Bock was at 1065° and Double Bock at 1075°."
Journal of the Institute of Brewing, Volume 66, 1960, pages 494 - 495.

Though not mentioned there by name, the Reinheitsgebot dictated differences in German and Danish brewing practice. The Danes had indeed founded their modern brewing industry on Bavarian traditions and techniques. Carlsberg's first Lager was in the dark Munich style.

I'm not sure what the "common beer" in Germany was. 1044º is at about the bottom end of a Pils gravity. But in 1960 Export was the most popular style. I'm a bit flumoxed because the gravity is too low for Helles.

Now a little more detail about Danish brewing:

"Denmark
Malt adjuncts and soluble chill-proofing agents are allowed and artificial carbonation is practised. Maize was the usual adjunct, up to 30% being used, and tannic acid and enzyme treatments were employed in the lager tank and at bottling."
Journal of the Institute of Brewing, Volume 66, 1960, page 495.

30% is a lot of maize. English brewers rarely used more than 10-15%, though William Younger in Scotland sometimes had 40% maize grits in its beers.

Now malting:

"Malting.— Malting barley consisted mainly of the Scandinavian varieties, Carlsberg II, Herta and Hafnia, with nitrogen contents usually 1.6-1.8%. Pilsner was the basic brewing malt, with the high diastatic power essential for maize conversion; values of 50-60° L. were normal. Extract (Congress wort) ranged from 98 to 104 lb. per Qr. and the difference between fine and coarse extract could be as much as 6 lb. per Qr., the resulting malt having a characteristic gritty bite.

The two major maltings visited (Carlsberg and K.B.) provided extreme variations in the production of this type of malt. One favoured a long cool process with 45-65 hr. in steep at 50° F. and an 8-day germination rising to 60° F.; the other preferred 40-60 hr. in steep at 69° F. and a 6-day growth to 64° F. Subsequent kilning was identical, with the temperature rising to 190° F. in 24 hr."
Journal of the Institute of Brewing, Volume 66, 1960, page 495.

98 to 104 lbs of extract is very high. Somewhere in the 90's is the best I've seen in British brewing records. Though this is doubtless a lab extract rather than one from an actual brew.

Hang on. I've analyses of British malt from the 1930's. here you go:

2 row Malts in the 1930's  
Pale Ale malts Mild Ale malts malt from foreign 2-row barley
Spratt-Archer Plumage-Archer Plumage-Archer Spratt-Archer Yorkshire plumage Moravian Chilean Chevalier Bohemian Hanna
moisture % 1.5 1.8 1.7 2.1 2 1.8 1.6 2.5
Extract, lb. 336 lb 100.5 100.6 100.6 99 99.4 98.9 99.9 99.8
colour, 1 inch cell 4.5 4 6.5 6 7 6.5 6.5 4
cold water extract % 18 18.7 19.1 18.7 17.7 17.1 18.7 20.2
diastatic activity Lº 36 37 32 35 32 37 38 35
extract on dry malt 102 102.4 102.3 101.1 101.4 100.7 101.5 102.3
total nitrogen % on dry malt 1.342 1.314 1.322 1.4 1.469 1.518 1.48 1.52
PSN % 0.51 0.509 0.488 0.541 0.469 0.562 0.618 0.6
PSN % on total nitrogen 38 38.7 36.9 38.6 33.3 36.9 41.8 39.5
PSN % on total wort solids 0.67 0.67 0.64 0.72 0.65 0.75 0.82 0.79
Source:
"Brewing Science & Practice" H. Lloyd Hind, 1943, p. 254, 256 & 258
Notes:
PSN = permanently Soluble Nitrogen

You can see that the moisture content and extract are pretty similar to the Danish malt. The diastatic power of the latter is indeed much higher, by something like 50%. Doubtless the pale malt was darker in colour, too, than Danish pilsner malt.

You can probably guess what I'll say next. Loads more of this to come.

Saturday, 20 September 2014

A load more Lagerbiers from the North

I'm a bit reluctant to say "North Germany" because many of these beers are from places no longer in Germany. They were at the time, though.

One of the columns in my enormous spreadsheet of beer details is country. For place that have switched nationality over the last century or so, my choice is always likely to be arbitrary. More based on my convenience rather than being a political statement. So breweries in Prague and Pilsen I class as Czech, ones in Vienna and Graz as Austrian. It can't possibly be perfect. Where's the right country to assign to Königsberg? Russia? I don't think so.

But I'm wandering off again. As you can see, these are odds and sods or anonymous. Not the best sets ever. You'll probably be delighted to hear that his will be the Lagerbiers done. I've only just started extracting the Exports so there may be a small pause in this series. You know me, I'll get to it eventually.

As I'll eventually get to discussing these beers. Beginning with those from Königsberg, formerly capital of East Prussia, now part of Russia. I wonder if there's a brewery there today?  All five beers from Königsberg are towards the top end of the scale. Interesting to see an Autumn beer - Herbstbier - for the first time. It looks like a Bock to me. With that crap degree of attenuation it resembles a Munich Bock of the period

Random Northeast German Lagerbiers 1880 - 1897
Year Brewer Town Beer Style OG FG OG Plato ABV App. Atten-uation lactic acid % CO2 %
1880 Wickholder Königsberg März-Bräu Märzen 1054.6 1019.0 13.51 4.60 65.20% 0.230
1880 Ponarther Königsberg Sommerbier Sommerbier 1056.3 1025.0 13.91 4.03 55.60% 0.250
1880 Woriener Königsberg Sommerbier Sommerbier 1056.5 1017.2 13.96 5.10 69.56% 0.180
1880 Schönbuchser Königsberg Sommerbier Sommerbier 1062.0 1018.8 15.23 5.60 69.65% 0.190
1880 Schönbuchser Königsberg Herbstbier Herbstbier 1065.4 1026.5 16.01 5.01 59.45% 0.240
Average 1058.9 1021.3 14.52 4.87 63.89% 0.218
1887 Brauerei-Aktien-Gesellschaft Berlin Königstadt Lagerbier Hell Helles 1056.0 1015.7 13.84 5.24 71.96% 0.141 0.346
1887 Brauerei-Aktien-Gesellschaft Berlin Königstadt Lagerbier Dunkel Dunkles 1061.9 1023.8 15.22 4.93 61.55% 0.148 0.323
1887 Brauerei-Aktien-Gesellschaft Berlin Friedrichshain Lagerbier Lagerbier 1065.8 1024.6 16.12 5.33 62.61% 0.295
Average 1061.2 1021.4 15.06 5.16 65.38% 0.145 0.321
1894 Unknown Breslau Lagerbier? Lagerbier 1045.7 1010.0 11.40 4.64 78.12% 0.247
1897 Unknown Breslau Lagerbier? Lagerbier 1048.7 1014.6 12.10 4.41 69.99% 0.161 0.322
Average 1047.2 1012.3 11.75 4.53 74.05% 0.161 0.285
Source:
Chemie der menschlichen Nahrungs- und Genussmittel by Joseph König, 1903, pages 1102 - 1156

Talking of Munich Bockbier, there are a whole load of Salvator analyses coming up. Lots from Zacherl, but also other breweries.

Where was I? Königsberg beers. Pretty poor attenuation overall. They must have had a lot of body, these beers. No lactic acid number, so I've no idea how acidic they were. The Märzen actually looks much like a modern version, apart from the crappy attenuation.

Next three random beers from Berlin. Note the big difference between the attenuation of the Helles and the Dunkles. You quite often see that today, too, that Dunkles has a lower degree of attenuation. I suppose because drinkers expect more body. The acidity is, as with just about every other set, quite high. You'll see something very odd when we get to Berliner Weisse. But I won't spoil that now. The CO2 level is the highest we've seen. Does that mean they liked their beer fizzier in Berlin? Too small a sample to really say. Though Berliner Weisse, a very highly-carbonated style, was popular in the city.

Now for the Erfurt beers. Did I mention that I spent my wedding night in Erfurt? The next day we lost Eddie when he was distracted by a group of Russian soldiers. The Erfurt beer was really good. Angerbräu Pils was one of my favourite DDR beers. Lovely stuff, especially on draught, Really nice and hoppy.

Erfurt Lagerbiers 1879
Year Brewer Style OG FG OG Plato ABV App. Atten-uation lactic acid % CO2 %
1879 Unknown Lagerbier 1045.9 1010.6 11.45 4.59 76.91% 0.16 0.25
1879 Unknown Lagerbier 1047.0 1016.5 11.71 3.94 64.89% 0.15 0.15
1879 Unknown Lagerbier 1047.5 1014.1 11.83 4.33 70.32% 0.15 0.20
1879 Unknown Lagerbier 1048.7 1013.9 12.12 4.51 71.46% 0.09 0.15
1879 Unknown Lagerbier 1048.7 1015.0 12.12 4.36 69.20% 0.15 0.21
1879 Unknown Lagerbier 1049.1 1011.5 12.21 4.89 76.58% 0.12 0.27
1879 Unknown Lagerbier 1050.6 1016.4 12.57 4.43 67.59% 0.06 0.20
1879 Unknown Lagerbier 1050.8 1017.6 12.61 4.30 65.35% 0.10 0.18
1879 Unknown Lagerbier 1051.0 1019.0 12.66 4.14 62.75% 0.11
1879 Unknown Lagerbier 1051.3 1015.3 12.73 4.66 70.18% 0.11 0.25
1879 Unknown Lagerbier 1051.7 1021.2 12.83 3.94 58.99% 0.09 0.10
1879 Unknown Lagerbier 1052.0 1013.7 12.90 4.98 73.65% 0.13 0.20
1879 Unknown Lagerbier 1054.1 1015.6 13.39 5.00 71.16% 0.06 0.15
1879 Unknown Lagerbier 1054.2 1013.3 13.40 5.31 75.44% 0.15
1879 Unknown Lagerbier 1055.2 1016.7 13.65 4.99 69.75% 0.15
1879 Unknown Lagerbier 1055.4 1016.3 13.70 5.08 70.58% 0.11 0.10
1879 Unknown Lagerbier 1055.5 1016.3 13.72 5.09 70.63% 0.10 0.20
1879 Unknown Lagerbier 1057.5 1018.7 14.19 5.03 67.48% 0.09 0.20
1879 Unknown Lagerbier 1063.7 1015.1 15.63 6.34 76.30%
1879 Unknown Lagerbier 1067.6 1022.8 16.53 5.80 66.27% 0.09 0.08
Average 1052.9 1016.0 13.10 4.78 69.77% 0.11 0.18
Source:
Chemie der menschlichen Nahrungs- und Genussmittel by Joseph König, 1903, pages 1102 - 1156

Right, Erfurt Lagerbiers. There's a fair spread of gravities but, once again, the average comes out to about 1053. Attenuation, at just under 70%, is a bit worse than most other sets. Though for once, at 0.11%, the lactic acid content is almost reasonable. Interesting how much lower the CO2 content is compared to the Berlin samples.

As a special treat, here are some modern beers from Erfurt - including Angerbräu Pils:

Walhaus-Bräu, Erfurt beers in 2014
Beer Style OG FG OG Plato ABV App. Atten-uation
Waldhaus-Bräu Helles? 1048.6 1010.2 12.1 5.00 79.03%
Stock-Dunkel  Dunkles 1049.1 1009.9 12.2 5.10 79.82%
Märzenbier  Märzen 1056.7 1015.9 14 5.30 71.95%
Weizen  Weizen  1050.3 1011.9 12.5 5.00 76.35%
Maibock  Maibock  1069.2 1020.7 16.9 6.30 70.09%
Rotbier  Rotbier  1049.1 1013.6 12.2 4.60 72.28%
Rauchbier  Rauchbier  1050.3 1011.9 12.5 5.00 76.35%
EM-Festbier  Helles 1048.2 1009.8 12 5.00 79.67%
Oktoberbock  Bock 1067.5 1017.6 16.5 6.50 73.98%
Doppelbock  Doppelbock  1076.2 1018.8 18.5 7.50 75.33%
Weihnachtsbier  Festbier 1058.8 1016.5 14.5 5.50 72.04%
Rauchbierbock  Bock Rauch 1067.9 1019.5 16.6 6.30 71.35%
Rauchweizendoppelbock  Doppelbock Rauchweizen 1079.3 1025.5 19.2 7.00 67.91%
Waldhaus WM-Bier  Festbier 1055.4 1015.4 13.7 5.20 72.30%
Average 74.17%
Source:
Waldhaus website
http://www.waldhaus-erfurt.de/cms/index.php?option=com_content&view=article&id=46&Itemid=50

Braugold, Erfurt beers in 2014
Beer Style OG FG OG Plato ABV App. Atten-uation
Braugold Festbier Festbier 1052.01 1007.6 12.9 5.80 85.39%
Braugold Spezial Spezial 1046.95 1009.3 11.7 4.90 80.19%
Braugold 1888 Helles 1050.32 1011.1 12.5 5.10 77.94%
Braugold Hell Helles 1046.11 1009.2 11.5 4.80 80.05%
Braugold Bock Bock 1068.33 1018.4 16.7 6.50 73.07%
Erfurter Angerbräu Premium Pils Pilsener 1050.32 1010.4 12.5 5.20 79.33%
Riebeck Premium Pilsener Pilsener 1046.53 1008.9 11.6 4.90 80.87%
Braugold Porter Porter 1048.21 1017.3 12 4.00 64.22%

Average 77.63%
Source:
Braugold website
http://www.braugold.de/produkte.html

The degree of attenuation is far higher, with the exception of the Waldhaus Märzen and the Braugold Porter.

As I said, there will probably be a gap before the next set. I'll maybe fill in with stuff from an 1960 article of Danish and German brewing.

Friday, 19 September 2014

There's still 25% off my Lulu print books

until the end of 22nd September with this code:

MATEY25

Think Porter! or Numbers! are too expensive - not now. You too could own the books all the coolest brewers have on their desks.

Barclay Perkins Bookstore



This code may only work in the US Lulu bookstore.

New sources

As if I didn't already have enough.

I just remembered how many German breweries give the OG as well as ABV on their websites. Great news. In a way.

I can harvest some data about beer styles, ABV, attenuation. Dead handy for comparisons with the 19th-century analyses I'm crawling through. And it really bumps up my modern German data. But . . .

Chipping out the 1800's gems was already scranning enough of my time.  I've just doubled my work. Brilliant.


It gets worse. Last week I decided to add a column to my main table of beer analyses. Every entry needs to be updated. All 22,000.

You may not hear from me for a while.

Whitbread Stout quality 1922

I just found myself subconsciously singing "My Way" in my head. Can't possibly think why

Finally we're there. At the final set of analyses. The very first part of this series, "Was Watney's Mild crap in the 1920's?" was on the 26th January 2014. So I've been at this for just about nine months. Scary to think it's taken as long to form as a baby.

But don't get too carried away yet. I've still a Stout roundup and then an overall league table to compile. There are still a few steps left in our journey.

How appropriate that Whitbread, the people we have to thank for this lovely information, comes last. Just an alphabetical coincidence, but still appropriate. I thought: "What extra crap, sorry background detail, can I stick in?" Why not something about the beers? The grists are an obvious one. But I know so much more about Whitbread beers. A great excuse for lots more tables.

For example, they very handily have tables at the back of their brewing books showing how much of each type of beer they brewed each week of the year, with monthly and annual totals. Which lets me put together tables like this:

Whitbread Porter and Stout output 1921 - 1929
P S CS LS ES Total
year barrels % barrels % barrels % barrels % barrels %
1921 15,688 6.57% 58,452 24.50% 133,563 55.97% 30,920 12.96% 238,623
1922 16,562 8.59% 47,530 24.66% 84,703 43.95% 15,340 7.96% 28,582 14.83% 192,717
1923 14,165 8.33% 39,960 23.51% 68,326 40.20% 20,866 12.28% 26,660 15.68% 169,977
1924 15,948 8.95% 37,834 21.23% 74,258 41.67% 23,442 13.16% 26,710 14.99% 178,192
1925 14,943 9.12% 35,396 21.59% 62,357 38.04% 22,262 13.58% 28,974 17.67% 163,932
1926 13,511 8.02% 34,567 20.51% 20,721 12.30% 69,724 41.38% 29,990 17.80% 168,513
1927 10,708 7.15% 30,087 20.09% 86,569 57.82% 22,361 14.93% 149,725
1928 10,105 7.11% 30,017 21.12% 85,992 60.49% 16,039 11.28% 142,153
1929 5,558 6.48% 17,284 20.15% 51,624 60.18% 11,313 13.19% 85,779
Sources:
Whitbread brewing records held at the London Metropolitan Archives, document numbers LMA/4453/D/09/113, LMA/4453/D/09/114, LMA/4453/D/09/115, LMA/4453/D/09/116, LMA/4453/D/09/117, LMA/4453/D/09/118, LMA/4453/D/09/119, LMA/4453/D/09/120, LMA/4453/D/09/121, LMA/4453/D/09/122.

It tells us a few things. Like their Porter started its terminal decline in 1926. That Country Stout (CS) had a brief life, at first almost sucking the life out of London Stout (LS) then withering itself away. LS bounces back to over 90,000 barrels a year in 1930. Don't know what happened in 1929, but the following year total Porter and Stout production was over 150,000 barrels again. Overall, Whitbread's Stout sales were in decline in the 1920's. In the 1930's they stabilised at around 120,000 barrels.

Now details of the beers. On the face of it, there were 7 beers: P (Porter) CS (Country Stout), COS (Country Oatmeal Stout), LS (London Stout), LOS (London Oatmeal Stout), S (Stout) and ES (Extra Stout). In reality there just three. As this table shows:

Whitbread Porter and Stout in 1922
Date Beer Style OG FG ABV App. Atten-uation lbs hops/ qtr hops lb/brl boil time (hours) boil time (hours) Pitch temp
12th Jun P Porter 1028.0 1007.0 2.78 74.98% 7.47 0.93 1.5 1.75 64º
12th Jun CS Stout 1045.7 1013.0 4.32 71.54% 7.47 1.52 1.5 1.75 61.5º
12th Jun COS Stout 1045.7 1013.0 4.32 71.54% 7.47 1.52 1.5 1.75 61.5º
6th Jun LS Stout 1054.6 1015.0 5.23 72.51% 7.44 1.77 1.75 2 61.5º
6th Jun LOS Stout 1054.6 1015.0 5.23 72.51% 7.44 1.77 1.75 2 61.5º
6th Jun S Stout 1054.6 1015.0 5.23 72.51% 7.44 1.77 1.75 2 61.5º
6th Jun ES Stout 1054.6 1015.0 5.23 72.51% 7.44 1.77 1.75 2 61.5º
Source:
Whitbread brewing record held at the London Metropolitan Archives, document number LMA/4453/D/09/115.

Now the grists:

Whitbread Porter and Stout grists in 1922
Date Beer Style OG pale malt brown malt black malt no. 3 sugar oats hops
12th Jun P Porter 1028.0 63.96% 14.15% 13.02% 8.30% 0.57% Oregon hops
12th Jun CS Stout 1045.7 63.96% 14.15% 13.02% 8.30% 0.57% Oregon hops
12th Jun COS Stout 1045.7 63.96% 14.15% 13.02% 8.30% 0.57% Oregon hops
6th Jun LS Stout 1054.6 64.69% 14.93% 12.09% 7.58% 0.71% Oregon hops
6th Jun LOS Stout 1054.6 64.69% 14.93% 12.09% 7.58% 0.71% Oregon hops
6th Jun S Stout 1054.6 64.69% 14.93% 12.09% 7.58% 0.71% Oregon hops
6th Jun ES Stout 1054.6 64.69% 14.93% 12.09% 7.58% 0.71% Oregon hops
Source:
Whitbread brewing record held at the London Metropolitan Archives, document number LMA/4453/D/09/115.

The recipes are elegantly simple: pale, brown and black malts, No. 3 invert sugar and a handful of oats for legal reasons. I should say recipe rather than recipes, because, though P, CS and COS were parti-gyled together, as were LS, LOS, S and ES, the same basic recipe was used for both sets. If I'm honest, Whitbread's records are terribly dull in this period.

One odd feature: 100% Oregon hops. It's really unusual to see all American hops in a beer. It implies to me that these are all early additions. They would normally use US hops for later additions. British brewers weren't keen on the flavour of American hops.

The ingredients are the same as they had been 50 years earlier. Look:

Whitbread Stout grists in 1870
Date Beer Style OG pale malt brown malt black malt Sugar
8th Aug SS Stout 1080.9 73.11% 13.71% 4.57% 8.61%
8th Aug SSS Stout 1098.3 73.11% 13.71% 4.57% 8.61%
4th Nov xp S Stout 1070.4 68.59% 18.29% 4.57% 8.55%
19th Jan K Porter 1055.6 70.00% 25.00% 5.00%
Sources:
Whitbread brewing records held at the London Metropolitan Archives, document numbers LMA/4453/D/09/063 and LMA/4453/D/09/064.

A little more pale malt and less black malt, but not really that much different.

That was fun. Now finally to today's beer, Whitbread draught Stout. Or London Stout, as it clearly was. It terms of spec, it's a touch stronger than average. Oh, and it's the more expensive 9d type of Stout. But what about its performance?

Whitbread Stout quality 1922
Year Beer FG OG ABV App. Atten-uation Flavour score Price
1922 Stout 1011.9 1055 5.61 78.36% good 2 9
1922 Stout 1018.2 1055.7 4.86 67.32% good 2 9
1922 Stout 1014.2 1055.2 5.33 74.28% v . fair 2 9
Average  1014.8 1055.3 5.27 73.32%
2.00
Source:
Whitbread Gravity book held at the London Metropolitan Archives, document number LMA/4453/D/02/001

We're ending on a high note. Only three samples, but all get an impressive 2 score. I could work out the average without the benefit of a computer.

Whitbread pubs will (or should that be were?) be full of time-travelling Stout lovers.