Friday, 20 July 2018

The World‘s Beer Production

More stuff from the Brewers' Guardians that have just become available on Google Books. They should keep me in material for posts for month.

Today we're looking at some numbers about breweries and beer production.

"The World‘s Beer Production.-—The Austrian brewers’ periodical Gambrinus publishes in accordance with custom a tabular statement of the beer production and taxation in the world. It appears therefrom that in nineteen countries the enormous sum of 173,662,717 florins is yielded by taxes on the production of beer. The total beer production is set down at 236,319,397 hectos, deducting the quantity brewed in those countries in which no beer tax is levied, 231,701,652 hectos remain. Comparing the latter quantity with the yield of the brewing tax, it is seen that each hectolitre of beer pays on an average 1.34 florins. Whilst in the German Beer Excise District the tax per hectolitre is only 47 kreuzers, in Austria it is 2.18 florins. With the exception of a few unimportant countries from a beer-brewing point of view, as Roumania, Greece, &c., Austria can boast of having the highest tax on beer. In Austria-Hungary, in 1889, there were 1,952 breweries at work, in which 13,728,431 hectos. of beer were brewed (as compared with 13,184,026 hectos. in the preceding year). The revenue accruing therefrom to the State was 25,325,252 florins (24,358,773 florins). The malt used amounted to 3,549,564 centners, and the hops to 102,800 centners only. In the German Empire, in 1889, there were 25,434 breweries at work, and their total production was 47,602,939 hectos. of beer (1888, 26,240 breweries, 47,243,706 hectos. production). The amount of 36,691,500 florins was collected in taxes; 18,208,410 ctrs. of malt was consumed, and 385,000 ctrs. of hops. In Bavaria, of 6,930 breweries, only 6,881 were at work; they consumed 6,339,144 ctrs. (as compared with 5,952,424 ctrs. in previous year), and produced 14,064,842 hectos. of beer, the tax using to 15,964,250 florins. In the other countries there were 22,840 breweries, producing 112,331,347 hectos. of beer, and consuming 43,320,160 ctrs. of malt, and 1,198,686 ctrs. of hops; the taxes yielded 174,302,645 florins."
"The Brewers' Guardian 1890", 1890, page 259.

I've put that information into a nice table because it's much easier to understand:

Breweries, beer production, materials and tax 1888 - 1889
breweries production tax (florins)
1888 1889 1888 1889 1888 1889 malt hops
Austria-Hungary 1,952 13,184,026 13,728,431 24,358,773 25,325,252 3,549,564 102,800
German Empire 26,240 25,434 47,243,706 47,602,939 36,691,500 18,208,410 385,000
Bavaria 6,930 14,064,842 15,964,250 6,339,144
other countries 22,840 112,331,347 174,302,645 43,320,160 1,198,686
total 236,319,397 316,667,992
Source:
"The Brewers' Guardian 1890", 1890, page 259.

And people think that there are a lot of breweries nowadays. Almost 7,000 breweries in Bavaria alone. It's amazing that more beer was brewed in Bavaria than in the whole of Austria-Hungary. Especially when you take their populations into account: Bavaria 5,595,000, Austria-Hungary 40,066,600.

I've also derived some numbers of my own about the average amount of hops used per hectolitre:


Hop usage 1889
Country hops kg/hl
Austria 0.37
Germany 0.40
other countries 0.53
UK 0.53
Sources:
"The Brewers' Guardian 1890", 1890, page 259.
“The Brewers' Society Statistical Handbook 1988” page 7
Brewers' Almanack 1928, pages 110 and 111

I had expected an even bigger difference between the UK and everywhere else. The UK figures are from 1902, incidentally.

Thursday, 19 July 2018

Ales through the Ages

I'm very excited that there will be another historic beer conference at Colonial Williamsburg this autumn. It it's naything like the l;ast one a couple of years ago, it's going to be a fun weekend.

Pete Brown, Stan Hieronymus, Martyn Cornell and myself, amongst others, will be speaking.

Ales through the Ages
October 19th - 21st in Colonial Williamsburg.

You can find more details here:

http://www.colonialwilliamsburg.com/learn/conferences
Conference Website – http://bit.ly/ales2018

That 1869 Adambier again

I’ve just got a new pdf book to play with. One I asked Google to make fully viewable a few weeks back. I just had an email saying that they had done that. I feel so proud.

The first thing I looked up was an article on the Pure Beer Bill. When I got to the appropriate page, I was amazed to see what the next article was: one about Adambier. Complete with a chemical analysis.

This is the article:

“Adam” Beer.
IN Westphalia a. peculiar beer is met with which. is there called by the above name or Old Beer. Unlike the majority of German beers. It is produced by “top” fermentation, and it is remarkable for its high percentage of lactic acid. One of these Old Beers, which was brewed from good raw materials and fermented with “top” yeast, after being kept for more than twelve months, and was very popular in the Dortmund district, had the following composition:—

Gravity 0.23 per cent. Balllng.
Extract 3.37 "
Alcohol 7.38 weight per cent.
Acid calculated as lactic acid 0.61 per cent.
Maltose (direct copper reduction) 0.66 "
Other sugars  0.62 "
Dextrin 0.50 "
Ash 0.284 "
Phosphoric acid 0.133 "
Nitrogen 0.112 "

From the above the following can be calculated :—

Original gravity 17.26 per cent.
Apparent fermentation 98.67 "
Actual fermentation 80.47 "

The remarkable features in the composition of this beer are the high percentage of lactic acid and the low percentage of dextrin. The beer was brown in colour, bright, without any sediment, and remained bright for a very long time; it was absolutely devoid of carbonic acid and tasted sour. A microscopical examination of the beer disclosed the presence of traces of yeast cells, very few rod bacteria, and traces of albumenous substances.”
"The Brewers' Guardian 1889", 1889, page 129.

When I started looking at the numbers, they looked remarkably familiar. Looking at something I’d written about Adambier a few years back I realised why. The article is clearly based on one in "Zeitschrift für Angewandte Chemie, Volume 3", also from 1889. That also comments on the high lactic acids and low dextrin content.

There are a couple of additions to put Adambier in context, but it’s really little more than a paraphrased translation of the German text. It’s a bit naughty nicking it without acknowledging the original.

You can find my translation of the German article here:

http://barclayperkins.blogspot.com/2010/04/adambier.html

Wednesday, 18 July 2018

Let's Brew Wednesday - 1958 William Younger No. 3 L

Here's a nother bit from the new book. This time it's one of the 200 recipes.

They weren’t the most exciting brewery when it came to recipes, William Younger. Their No.3 Scotch Ale looks very similar to the Bitter XXPQ and the Mild XXX.

But why change a recipe when you have a good one? And why change what you’ve done for a century or more? William Younger’s recipes always looked creepily familiar, whatever the supposed style.

The colour of the finished beer would have been much darker than the calculated colour in the recipe below. Probably not just one shade either, if I know Scottish brewing. Anywhere between 15 and 50 SRM would be my guess. Depending on which market the beer was intended for. Colour it up with caramel as dark as you like.



1958 William Younger No. 3 L
pale malt 6.25 lb 64.10%
flaked maize 3.00 lb 30.77%
cane sugar 0.50 lb 5.13%
Fuggles 90 mins 0.50 oz
Fuggles 60 mins 0.50 oz
Goldings 30 mins 0.50 oz
Goldings dry hops 0.125 oz
OG 1044
FG 1014
ABV 3.97
Apparent attenuation 68.18%
IBU 20
SRM 3
Mash at 149º F
Sparge at 160º F
Boil time 90 minutes
pitching temp 61º F
Yeast WLP028 Edinburgh Ale

Tuesday, 17 July 2018

Scotch Ale

Another book preview, I'm afraid, as we count down to the publication of Austerity!.

This time it's the fun topic of Scotch Ale.


"Scotch Ale
I’m only going to consider strong Scotch Ales as being in this category. Scottish Shilling Ales – 60/-, 70/- and 80/- are just types of Pale Ale.

Scottish breweries were dead dull for most of the 20th century, William Younger excepted. Most had a single recipe, from which they’d parti-gyle three Pale Ales – 60/-, 70/- and 80/- - plus possibly a Strong Ale. Sometimes they even managed to parti-gyle Stout with Pale Ale.

I’m classing Scotch Ale as two types. Which rather than pissing around with some abstract description, I’ll define in reference to two William Younger beers: No. 1 and No. 3. Though the latter type seems to have been peculiar to them. Strong Ales from other Scottish breweries were mostly along the lines of No. 1.

The No. 1 type of Scotch Ale was around 1070º - 1080º, dark and not particularly well attenuated. At most breweries it was parti-gyled with Pale Ales and so was effectively a double-strength Scottish Pale Ale."
"Austerity!" by Ronald Pattinson, 2235, pages 100 - 101.


Scotch Ale 1947 - 1950
Year Brewer Beer OG FG ABV App. Atten-uation colour
1950 Aitchison Scotch Ale 1080 1020.8 7.73 74.00% 55
1948 Aitken Strong Ale 1067.5 1021 6.04 68.89%
1948 Ballingall "Angus" Strong Ale 1073.5 1023.5 6.49 68.03%
1948 Calder Scotch Strong Ale 1065.5 1019 6.04 70.99%
1950 Campbell Royal Scotch Ale 1080.1 1014.2 8.66 82.27% 77
1948 Dryborough Strong Ale 1060 1019.5 5.25 67.50%
1947 Fowler Heavy Ale 1081.4 1025.5 7.27 68.67%
1948 Fowler Twelve Guinea Ale 1080 1021.5 7.63 73.13%
1949 Fowler Extra Strong 1078 1012 8.68 84.62%
1949 Fowler Twelve Guinea Ale 1077.7 1030.3 6.13 61.00% 100
1948 Jeffrey Strong Ale No. 1 1067 1025 5.43 62.69%
1948 Jeffrey Strong Ale 1065 1019.5 5.91 70.00%
1948 Maclachlan Strong Ale 1070.5 1024.5 5.96 65.25%
1948 McEwan Strong Ale 1078 1022.5 7.23 71.15%
1950 McEwan Scotch Ale 1088 1022.6 8.56 74.32% 63
1947 Murray Heavy Ale 1066.3 1017.25 6.38 73.96%
1948 Steel Coulson Strong Ale 1063 1026 4.77 58.73%
1947 Usher Old Scotch Ale 1073.5 1020.5 6.90 72.11%
1948 Usher Strong Ale 1090.5 1024.5 8.63 72.93%
1947 Younger, Wm. No. 1 Strong Ale 1074 1022 6.76 70.27%
1950 Younger, Wm. Scotch Ale 1087.6 1017.5 9.21 80.02% 60
Average 1074.6 1021.4 6.94 70.98% 71.0
Sources:
Whitbread Gravity book held at the London Metropolitan Archives, document number LMA/4453/D/02/002.
Thomas Usher Gravity Book held at the Scottish Brewing Archive, document TU/6/11.

Monday, 16 July 2018

Want to see my beautiful face

talking?

Then - if you're in the USA - you'd better get to Foggy Noggin in Bothell on the 10th August:

https://www.facebook.com/events/1815649785407368/

Because that and a talk in Colonial Williamsburg in October are likely to be my only events in the USA for the rest of the year.

I'll be talking about - while we're drinking it - No. 1 Ale. The Ur Barley Wine. It should be lots of fun. Especially as the six beers are all over 8% ABV.

Many of the recipes feature in my ground-breaking book on Scottish beer:

Scottish Pale Ale Grists 1948 - 1965

 Now the new book is almost done, it's time for a little preview. This is something I literally just finished writing five minutes ago. On the ever fescinating topic of Scottish Pale Ales.

Scottish brewers were, for the most part pretty dull when it came to recipes. Most only had the one.

I’ve only bothered with one of a brewery’s Pale Ale range, as all were parti-gyled together. Except at the ever contrary William Younger. Not only weren’t their Pale Ales parti-gyled together, they all had slightly different recipes. The crazy bastards.

Scottish Pale Ale grists 1948 - 1965: malts and adjuncts
Year Brewer Beer OG pale malt black malt enzymic malt flaked maize flaked barley
1958 Bernard Pale 1/1 1031 75.20% 0.82% 13.08%
1948 Drybrough P 60/- 1030 79.11% 0.78% 1.65% 10.55%
1954 Drybrough 60/- 1032 74.52% 2.40% 0.64% 6.01% 6.01%
1960 Drybrough 60/- 1031 74.95% 0.44% 12.49%
1965 Drybrough 60/- 1031 74.45% 0.06% 12.07%
1951 Maclay PA 6d 1030 86.33%
1956 Maclay PA 6d 1030 74.82% 11.51%
1965 Maclay PA 6d 1030 74.82% 11.51%
1962 Thomas Usher P 1/4 1036 69.23% 6.29%
1957 Younger, Robert 60/- 1030 77.03% 13.75%
1960 Younger, Robert 60/- 1030 71.39% 19.99%
1949 Younger, Wm. XXP Btg 1031 92.86% 7.14%
1949 Younger, Wm. XXP 1031.5 88.24% 11.76%
1949 Younger, Wm. Ext 1047 87.50% 12.50%
1958 Younger, Wm. XXPQ 1033 60.00% 26.67%
1958 Younger, Wm. XXPSL 1038 58.62% 27.59%
1958 Younger, Wm. EXT 1046 60.94% 29.69%
1958 Younger, Wm. XXPS Btg 1038 62.16% 32.43%
Sources:
T & J Bernard brewing record held at the Scottish Brewing Archive, document number TJB6/1/1/1.
Drybrough brewing record held at the Scottish Brewing Archive, document number D/6/1/1/6.
Drybrough brewing record held at the Scottish Brewing Archive, document number D/6/1/1/7.
Drybrough brewing record held at the Scottish Brewing Archive, document number D/6/1/1/8.
Maclay brewing record held at the Scottish Brewing Archive, document number M/6/1/1/28.
Maclay brewing record held at the Scottish Brewing Archive, document number M/6/1/1/35.
Maclay brewing record held at the Scottish Brewing Archive, document number M/6/1/1/44.
Thomas Usher brewing record held at the Scottish Brewing Archive, document number TU/6/9/1.
Robert Younger brewing record held at the Scottish Brewing Archive, document number RY/6/1/2.
Robert Younger brewing record held at the Scottish Brewing Archive, document number RY/6/1/3.
William Younger brewing record held at the Scottish Brewing Archive, document number WY/6/1/2/88.
William Younger brewing record held at the Scottish Brewing Archive, document number WY/6/1/3/112.


I’ve lumped the malts and adjuncts together because there aren’t many of either. Mostly it’s just pale malt and flaked maize or barley. A couple of examples have a small amount of black malt for colour. But there’s no crystal malt in sight.

William Younger loved to stuff their beers with adjuncts. Before WW II most of their beers were 40% grits. The beers above aren’t quite that bad, but those from the 1950s all still have over 25% flaked maize.

Two sugar tables for this set.

Scottish Pale Ale grists 1948 - 1965: sugars
Year Brewer Beer OG no. 1 sugar invert Avona Hydrol
1958 Bernard Pale 1/1 1031 6.54% 4.36%
1948 Drybrough P 60/- 1030 2.64%
1954 Drybrough 60/- 1032 3.21% 3.21%
1960 Drybrough 60/- 1031 6.81% 1.51%
1965 Drybrough 60/- 1031 7.38% 0.67%
1951 Maclay PA 6d 1030 9.59%
1956 Maclay PA 6d 1030 7.67%
1965 Maclay PA 6d 1030 7.67%
1962 Thomas Usher P 1/4 1036 17.48%
1957 Younger, Robert 60/- 1030 4.58% 3.67%
1960 Younger, Robert 60/- 1030 3.81% 3.81%
1949 Younger, Wm. XXP Btg 1031
1949 Younger, Wm. XXP 1031.5
1949 Younger, Wm. Ext 1047
1958 Younger, Wm. XXPQ 1033
1958 Younger, Wm. XXPSL 1038 2.30%
1958 Younger, Wm. EXT 1046 3.13%
1958 Younger, Wm. XXPS Btg 1038

Invert sugar is as popular as ever. No. 1 being what you’d expect in Pale Ales. The unspecific “invert” is most likely either No. 1 or No. 2 invert. Avona and Hydrol are enigmatic proprietary sugars.

Scottish Pale Ale grists 1948 - 1965: sugars again
Year Brewer Beer OG cane candy caramel malt extract other sugar
1958 Bernard Pale 1/1 1031
1948 Drybrough P 60/- 1030 0.88% 4.39%
1954 Drybrough 60/- 1032 0.80% 3.21%
1960 Drybrough 60/- 1031 1.51% 0.76% 1.51%
1965 Drybrough 60/- 1031 2.68% 2.68%
1951 Maclay PA 6d 1030 0.24% 3.84%
1956 Maclay PA 6d 1030 0.24% 1.92% 3.84%
1965 Maclay PA 6d 1030 0.24% 1.92% 3.84%
1962 Thomas Usher P 1/4 1036 0.00% 2.10% 4.90%
1957 Younger, Robert 60/- 1030 0.05% 0.92%
1960 Younger, Robert 60/- 1030 0.05% 0.95%
1949 Younger, Wm. XXP Btg 1031
1949 Younger, Wm. XXP 1031.5
1949 Younger, Wm. Ext 1047
1958 Younger, Wm. XXPQ 1033 8.89% 4.44%
1958 Younger, Wm. XXPSL 1038 6.90% 4.60%
1958 Younger, Wm. EXT 1046 6.25%
1958 Younger, Wm. XXPS Btg 1038 5.41%

A more normal lot of sugars. Though exactly what is meant by cane and candy isn’t 100% clear. I assume that cane refers to some partially refined cane sugar. There’s lots of malt extract again, always in tiny quantities. The largest amount used is under 3% of the total grist.

Pale malt, flaked adjunct and sugar. That’s all there is to Scottish Pale Ale grists.

Sunday, 15 July 2018

A Normal Life

Before I became a 100% beer obsessive, language was my thing. And by extension literature.

Fearing forgetting my French, I started reading its classic literature: Gide, Flaubert, Maupassant, De Beauvoir, and loads more. Oh, and "La Modification" by Michel Butor. A book that hugely influenced my writing style.

Hearing English knowledge was zero in Czechoslovakia, I decided to learn a little Czech before my first visit in 1983. It was the start of a weird obsession.

I took evening classes, and tried to repeat my French upkeep. I tried to read books with the aid of a dictionary. Hard, hard work with a language as different from English as Czech. But I can be a stubborn bastard at times. What else was I to do on my boringly long commutes?

As well as being able to order beer and pork, Kundera played a role in part interst in learning Czech. I'd been impressed with what I'd read in translation. But after my experience with French literature, I realised that I needed to taste the real thing. Direct. With no trnslator inbetween.

Once I'd cracked reading literary Czech, an amazing world opened up. Wonderful, imaginative books. Hasek, Capek, Paral, Klima, Hrabal and more. A vibrant, playful tradition.

"Válka s mnohozvířetem" (War with the Multibeast) by Paral, is one of the craziest things I've ever read. I couldn't get it out of my head for years.

But one book really spoke to me. Obyčejný život (An Ordinary Life) by Karel Čapek. (The man who invented the word robot.) Saying how apparently boring lives conceal unexpected depths.

Not sure where this is going. Other than learn shit - it's worth it. Don't choose stupid.