Tuesday, 13 November 2018

Beer or wine

Remember the table in my last post? Obviously not. No-one remembers anything nowadays. Especially me.

I wouldn't be able to remember what I had for breakfast. If I didn't have the same thing every day. Cheese toastie. Today with Emmenthaler. Usually old Gouda. I'm rambling. On with business.

Here's the table I'm going to refer back to. It'll make things easier for us all.

UK Excise and customs revenue from alcoholic drink (£ millions)
Beer Wine Spirits
Year UK Imports total UK Imports total UK Imports total Duty Receipts in Total
1937 57.3 5.4 62.7 0.5 5.1 5.6 31.4 4.8 36.2 104.5
1938 61.2 4.5 65.7 0.5 5.0 5.5 31.1 4.8 35.9 107.1
1939 62.4 3.2 65.6 0.5 4.8 5.3 30.9 4.7 35.6 106.5
1940 75.2 3.6 78.8 0.9 5.7 6.6 34.5 6.2 40.7 126.1
1941 133.5 5.6 139.1 1.6 7.8 9.4 33.9 11.6 45.5 194.0
1942 157.3 7.3 164.6 1.1 3.8 4.9 31.0 15.7 46.7 216.2
1943 209.6 8.0 217.6 1.7 2.4 4.1 49.4 18.2 67.6 289.3
1944 263.2 6.4 269.6 2.1 2.3 4.4 59.6 17.2 76.8 350.8
1945 278.9 8.9 287.8 2.0 2.5 4.5 50.1 13.5 63.6 355.9
1946 295.3 10.8 306.1 2.2 5.0 7.2 51.2 16.9 68.1 381.4
1947 250.4 9.4 259.8 2.2 10.8 13.0 51.6 24.9 76.5 349.3
1948 264.1 9.9 274.0 3.4 15.6 19.0 40.7 42.7 83.4 376.4
1949 294.7 12.6 307.3 3.8 15.7 19.5 46.7 44.1 90.8 417.6
1950 263.1 13.7 276.8 2.8 16.1 18.9 58.7 39.6 98.3 394.0
1951 249.1 13.0 262.1 3.2 18.1 21.3 75.8 38.7 114.5 397.9
1952 248.2 12.7 260.9 3.3 17.5 20.8 67.1 29.9 97.0 378.7
Source:
"Drink in Great Britain 1900-1979" by GP Williams and GT Brake, 1980, Edsdall London, page 380.


Though, if you look at the next table, you’ll see that, while the tax revenue on wine trebled between 1939 and 1948, the quantity consumed had fallen considerably, by more than a third. Beer consumption over the same period was up by a quarter. It must be borne in mind that that beer in 1948 was on average about 10 degrees in gravity weaker than in 1939.


UK Consumption of beer and wine 1937-52 (1,000 gallons)
Imported Wines
Year Beer Heavy Light Sparkling British Wines Total Wines % wine
1937      864,000 11,709 3,950 679 5,690 22,028 2.49%
1938      900,000 31,516 3,623 628 6,144 21,910 2.33%
1939      900,000 11,602 3,062 561 6,418 21,645 2.35%
1940      936,000 11,353 2,572 388 6,916 21,228 2.22%
1941      972,000 10,392 1,730 232 6,408 18,763 1.89%
1942   1,080,000 4,623 752 75 3,957 9,407 0.86%
1943   1,080,000 1,705 264 29 3,100 5,098 0.47%
1944   1,116,000 1,166 508 13 2,898 4,585 0.41%
1945   1,152,000 1,400 227 11 2,735 4,373 0.38%
1946   1,224,000 2,723 464 92 2,921 6,200 0.50%
1947   1,080,000 5,282 1,837 329 2,998 10,445 0.96%
1948   1,116,000 7,098 2,145 383 3,899 13,525 1.20%
1949   1,008,000 5,718 1,282 497 2,961 10,458 1.03%
1950      972,000 5,939 1,667 476 3,662 11,754 1.19%
1951      936,000 6,439 2,684 560 4,450 14,133 1.49%
1952      936,000 6,078 3,234 519 4,672 14,503 1.53%
Source:
"Drink in Great Britain 1900-1979" by GP Williams and GT Brake, 1980, Edsdall London, page 381.

Strange how the imports of sparkling wine collapse between 1942 and 1947. It’s almost as if there was a reason why they couldn’t get hold of champagne.

Monday, 12 November 2018

Booze revenue 1937 - 1952

More numbers. What fun.

It’s no surprise that the money raised from alcohol increased during the war. That’s the way UK governments always financed wars. Alcohol is an easy choice since demand is fairly elastic. The table below shows just how much of that came from beer. And how the percentage raised from beer rose from 60% in 1937 to 80% in 1945 and 1946.

Between 1939 and 1947, the revenue from spirits only just more than doubled. While that from beer quadrupled.

You might have expected the income from imported beer to have totally evaporated at the height of the war. There’s a simple reason it didn’t: Guinness. Which continued to export – with some small interruptions you’ll read about later – large quantities of beer to the UK.

There’s an impressive surge in imported wine revenue after 1947. Way higher than the pre-war level.

Please ponder the numbers. As I can't be arsed to explain everything. Stare long enough and they'll make some sort of sense. Or you'll fall into a zombie-like state. That's me most evenings. Get home, staring then zombieing.

UK Excise and customs revenue from alcoholic drink (£ millions)
Beer Wine Spirits
Year UK Imports total UK Imports total UK Imports total Duty Receipts in Total
1937 57.3 5.4 62.7 0.5 5.1 5.6 31.4 4.8 36.2 104.5
1938 61.2 4.5 65.7 0.5 5.0 5.5 31.1 4.8 35.9 107.1
1939 62.4 3.2 65.6 0.5 4.8 5.3 30.9 4.7 35.6 106.5
1940 75.2 3.6 78.8 0.9 5.7 6.6 34.5 6.2 40.7 126.1
1941 133.5 5.6 139.1 1.6 7.8 9.4 33.9 11.6 45.5 194.0
1942 157.3 7.3 164.6 1.1 3.8 4.9 31.0 15.7 46.7 216.2
1943 209.6 8.0 217.6 1.7 2.4 4.1 49.4 18.2 67.6 289.3
1944 263.2 6.4 269.6 2.1 2.3 4.4 59.6 17.2 76.8 350.8
1945 278.9 8.9 287.8 2.0 2.5 4.5 50.1 13.5 63.6 355.9
1946 295.3 10.8 306.1 2.2 5.0 7.2 51.2 16.9 68.1 381.4
1947 250.4 9.4 259.8 2.2 10.8 13.0 51.6 24.9 76.5 349.3
1948 264.1 9.9 274.0 3.4 15.6 19.0 40.7 42.7 83.4 376.4
1949 294.7 12.6 307.3 3.8 15.7 19.5 46.7 44.1 90.8 417.6
1950 263.1 13.7 276.8 2.8 16.1 18.9 58.7 39.6 98.3 394.0
1951 249.1 13.0 262.1 3.2 18.1 21.3 75.8 38.7 114.5 397.9
1952 248.2 12.7 260.9 3.3 17.5 20.8 67.1 29.9 97.0 378.7
Source:
"Drink in Great Britain 1900-1979" by GP Williams and GT Brake, 1980, Edsdall London, page 380.

Sunday, 11 November 2018

UK pubs 1937 - 1952

Time for some more lovely numbers. Moving along a little, now I've done with my WW I book.

Looking at the numbers, it might look strange that there were more fully-licensed pubs in 1947 than 1939. But on closer observation, this is obviously due to beer houses (in column three) converting to full licenses. The total number of pub on-licences in reality declines from 73,572 to 73,232.

I'm surprised the decline wasn't greater. Hundreds of pubs were badly damaged or destroyed by bombing during the war. And rebuilding was virtually impossible. You needed a licence to carry out building works and these were mostly limited to what as considered essential.

The number of clubs was more volatile, dropping by a couple of thousand during the war, returning to its pre-war level in 1947, then zooming upwards from there.

Less explicable is what happened in Scotland, where the number of on-licences for pubs and hotels increased by 48 between 1939 and 1947. Hotel had a specific meaning in Scotland. They were the only licensed outlets allowed to open on Sundays. In addition to offering accommodation, they also operated as pubs.

The increase is all in hotels. Where did they come from? They can't have been all pubs becoming hotels because the numbers don't tally.

Though the total number of licences increased in Scotland, the number of off-licences declined. While in England and Wales, it increased. Again, explanation have I none.

More investigation needed.

LICENSED PREMISES (ENGLAND AND WALES, AND SCOTLAND), 1937-52
England and Wales Scotland
Year Full All Drinks On-licences Beer/Wine  Regist. Clubs Off-Licences Total Public Houses Hotels  Regist. Clubs Off-Licences Total
1937 56233 18093 16563 22109 112998 4214 1491 687 2475 8867
1938 56173 17747 16951 22052 112923 4203 1506 700 2435 8844
1939 56112 17460 17362 21995 112929 4177 1524 695 2404 8800
1940 56047 17318 16463 21884 111712
1941 56961 17249 15864 21756 110830 4125 1509 661 2281 8576
1942 55901 17191 15682 21653 110427 4101 1501 649 2247 8498
1943 55868 17137 15732 21628 110365 4098 1502 651 2214 8465
1944 55856 17109 15678 21610 110253 4105 1498 657 2218 8478
1945 55875 17085 15590 21599 110149 4080 1506 681 2188 8455
1946 56009 17017 16496 21693 111215 4084 1565 740 2204 8593
1947 56305 16927 17470 21848 112550 4103 1646 773 2257 8779
1948 56850 16534 18370 22025 113779 4111 1690 834 2313 8948
1949 58140 15282 18962 22218 114602 4115 1709 884 2342 9050
1950 59054 14429 19221 23532 161236 4118 1740 912 2366 9136
1951 59757 13664 19511 23669 116601 4123 1768 944 2380 9215
1952 60333 13035 19903 23717 116988 4111 1770 966 2387 9234
Source:
"Drink in Great Britain 1900-1979" by GP Williams and GT Brake, 1980, Edsdall London, page 380.


What were they drinking on Armistice Day?

You can find out in my wonderful new book, which tells you everything you need yo know about British beer during WW I.

And a whole load of stuff you didn't need to know. There's a stack of information in its 600-odd pages. Plus there's a truly ludicrous number of recipes. Buy several copies and give the spare ones to your friends.



Support independent publishing: buy this book on Lulu.

Saturday, 10 November 2018

Let's Brew - 1919 Truman S4

Another recipe from my wonderful new book that tells you everything you ever needed to know about beer in WW I. You really should buy a copy now.

Somehow Truman S4 managed to go through the war at just about the same strength. Even in that most difficult year, 1918.

Though, given the rules in force, they couldn’t have brewed very much of it. Despite having several beers with gravities below 1030º.

The grist has seen flaked maize dropped and a tiny black malt added. As with all Truman’s beers, the base remains a combination of pale and high dried malt.

The hops are noticeably better than for their other, weaker beers. They’re all English from the 1918 harvest. So basically as fresh as was possible, given this beer was brewed in March.

1919 Truman S4
pale malt 8.25 lb 51.16%
high dried malt 6.75 lb 41.86%
black malt 0.125 lb 0.78%
No. 2 invert sugar 1.00 lb 6.20%
Goldings 120 mins 3.75 oz
Goldings 30 mins 3.75 oz
Goldings dry hops 1.00 oz
OG 1072
FG 1020.5
ABV 6.81
Apparent attenuation 71.53%
IBU 84
SRM 14
Mash at 151º F
Sparge at 170º F
Boil time 120 minutes
pitching temp 57.5º F
Yeast Wyeast 1028 London Ale (Worthington White Shield)


You can find this recipe, along with history of British brewing during WW I,  and ludicrous number of recipes, iin my latest book. Buy several copies and give the spare ones to your friends.


Support independent publishing: buy this book on Lulu.

Friday, 9 November 2018

Atlanta there I go

The hotel might be a bit grotty, but least breakfast is free. The downside being that it’s a plastic plate and cutlery job. That can’t be good for the environment.

There’s no bacon, but there are scrambled eggs and little sausages. The latter swimming gaily in grease. It’ll have to do. I try not to pay attention to Fox News, which is jabbering away in a corner. Just as I’m trying not to pay too much attention to the texture of the sausages. Or their taste. I’m scared of what I’ll find if I look too hard.

It’s not my poshest breakfast ever, but it’s filled a hole that needed filling. And it was free. I keep reminding myself that.

My flight isn’t until 3:20 PM. Ideally, I’d like to head there a little after 1 PM. But checkout is at noon. After I’ve filled my hole, I go to reception and ask if I can check out a little later, say at 1 PM.

“Sure. Just give me a good tip.” The young lady at the counter replies.

“Fine by me.”

I go back to my room for some serious hanging around pointlessly while watching TV and fiddling on the internet simultaneously. At 12:15 I get a call.

“You need to check out sir.”

“I’ve arranged to check out a little later.”

“I’m afraid we can’t do that, sir. We’ve too many guests arriving today.”


Bum. I don’t rush to pack up my gear and head to check out. At least I squeezed in an extra half hour in the hotel.

Once checked out, I take a cab. It’s a fixed fare this way, too. Quite civilised, that.

I check in two bags this time, keeping only my grey DDR bag with me. It doesn’t take long, as I have Sky Priority. That’s so handy. Makes most of the airport crap much less stressful.

Unlike at JFK, I’ve very little walking to do. Especially considering the size of the airport. There’s a little food court on the first floor of the pier. Perfect. I can do weird tapas. I kick off with a taco at the Mexican place. Followed by two pork and egg spring rolls, then a portion of onion rings. How multi-culti is that?

While I’m eating, I power up my laptop. Not to get on the internet or anything. To watch some episodes of Taskmaster series one. It helps pass the time nicely.

When it gets closer to boarding time I move towards the gate, hoping to find a bar to drink a final toast to the US. That looks like one just down there. Oh. It’s a Belgian beer bar. I suppose that will do. I order a Duvel and a Jack Daniels. What an odd way to end.

I’ve got a comfort seat again. No point suffering unnecessarily. I watched all the episodes of Archer that they have on the way out. So I switch on my laptop and go back to watching Taskmaster.

Soon after I’ve eaten and had a couple of whiskies, I settle down for a kip. Which works surprisingly well. I awake just before they serve us breakfast. Perfect.

My bags pop out soon after I arrive at the carousel. I’m in no rush, so I get the bus home. What a good boy I am.

I’ll be back here soon. I fly to London tomorrow evening.

Thursday, 8 November 2018

Atlanta

The day starts with a fry up. The same bacon and egg combination I had a few days ago.

The same waitress serves me. And clearly remembers me, as she can recall some of my preferences. Which is quite cool. As is eating bacon after a couple of days without.

My flight isn’t until 2 PM. I’m planning on hanging around in my hotel room until checkout at noon. With one little excursion. To the liquor store on Main Street.

The weather is quite pleasant and it’s not that far. It lets me see a bit more of the town. To be honest, I’ve seen bugger all of it, other than the inside of my hotel. I walk past the Edgar Allen Poe Museum, which is in an old stone cottage.


I head straight for the bourbon section, but on my way there am distracted by the moonshine display. Now there’s something that would interest the kids. And very reasonably priced at $9.99 for a half bottle.

Once I’m checked out, I grab a cab and head for the airport. Where I pick up my boarding pass and dump a bag. It’s all very routine.

I spot a Sam Adams pub on the way to my gate. Seems a good enough spot to kill some time. My waitress looks a few years older than me. Her colleague could be her mother. They certainly let the old work here in the US. I feel slightly embarrassed about making her run around serving me. I order a Stone IPA. And a bourbon.

I feel like eating a little something.

“Could I have a portion of onion rings?”

“I’m sorry, we’re out of those. What about some fries instead?”

“OK, that’ll do.” It’ll have to. For a while.

I don’t go too crazy in the bar. I still have stuff to do today.

I breeze out of the airport pretty quickly, not having had too long to wait for my checked in bag. I’ve been lucky so far with that. Unlike in the summer in San Diego, when my bag went missing. And when it arrived, my clothes were soaked in bourbon.

I wonder why the driver hasn’t switched on the meter. “How much will it cost to downtown?” I ask, nervously.

“$32. It’s a fixed fare.”

That’s cool. No need to worry about what route he’s taking.

My hotel isn’t the nicest I’ve ever stayed in. Probably the grottiest US hotel I’ve had in a decade or two. It’s all a bit rundown. The bathroom fittings look like they need replacing. And why are there cars parked virtually under my window? I’m on the 7th floor. Oh, right. My view is of a multi-storey car park. Great.

Pretty much as soon as I’ve unpacked my laptop and fired off a quick email to Dolores, I’m on the move again. I’m already a little late. I’m supposed to be meeting Mitch Steele and Stan Hieronymus at 6 PM and it’s already a little past that.

I quickly grab a taxi and head for New Realm, Mitch’s new brewery.


Despite being fairly huge, the brewery is quite well hidden in an industrial estate. I don’t fancy searching through the whole place for Mitch and Stan, so I ask one of the staff if they know where he is. Just as well I did ask, as he’s out on the patio. Probably the last place I would have looked.

In addition to Stan and Mitch, there are a few other people from New Realm and Daria, Stan’s wife. They already have beer and food. No wonder, as I am a bit late. I order a beer and a steak. Haven’t had one of those in a while. Steak, I mean. It’s only been a couple of hours since my last beer.


It’s good to catch up with Mitch and Stan. We chat about beery stuff, obviously. One topic is preservation of contemporary American brewing records, something I’ve discussed with Mitch before. I fear that should anyone attempt the type of research I do in fifty years’ time, there won’t be much left to look at.

Stan and Daria have tickets for a concert and can’t stay too long. After they’ve left I adjourn to the bar with Mitch for another beer. Always good talking to him. And drinking beer, obviously. The New Realm ones seem pretty decent, based on the ones I’ve tried here.

Again, I don’t leave it too late. I’m getting vaguely responsible in my old age. I watch a bit of crap TV, drink some moonshine and then crash. Sleep stalking me from the shadows.




Virginia ABC
2026 E Main St,
Richmond,
VA 23223.
https://www.abc.virginia.gov/stores/180
Tel: +1 804-225-2705


New Realm Brewing
550 Somerset Terrace NE #101,
Atlanta,
GA 30306.
https://newrealmbrewing.com/
Tel: +1 404-968-2777

Wednesday, 7 November 2018

Let's Brew Wednesday - 1916 Barclay Perkins XLK (Watney)

I'm just scanning through the manuscript of my new book one last time before I upload it to Lulu.

By the time you read this, it should be available to purchase. All 600-odd pages of it. Now why did I class this as a mini-book? I suppose I didn't expect the recipes to get so out of hand. My guess was 250. It ended up over 370. Even more than Scotland! volume II.

Anyway, here' the recipe:

One of the weirder appearances in the Barclay Perkins records are what appear to be brews for Watney.

It has the same name as one of their own beers – XLK. But that name wasn’t unique to Barclay Perkins. Truman also had a beer with the same name. The cheap and cheerful Bitter that, unlike their other Pale Ales, was brewed in London rather than Burton.

As it’s different in grist and gravity from either of Barclay Perkins own XLKs, I can only assume that this was being brewed for Watney. Maybe Barclay Perkins had spare capacity. As breweries had were pegged as a percentage of their 1914 output, I’m not sure why they would waste some of that brewing for someone else.

The recipe is quite similar to Barclay’s own XLK. That’s not a surprise, seeing as they were both brewed for the same London market. Its gravity falls about exactly between those of Barclay’s draught and bottled versions.

The hopping is a bit different from Barclay’s, though the hops are all still English: Kent (1914 CS, 1915 CS, 1916 and; Worcester (1915 CS) dry hops.


1916 Barclay Perkins XLK (Watney)
pale malt 6.75 lb 69.80%
flaked maize 1.25 lb 12.93%
No. 2 invert sugar 0.67 lb 6.93%
glucose 1.00 lb 10.34%
Fuggles 120 mins 1.00 oz
Fuggles 90 mins 0.75 oz
Goldings 30 mins 0.75 oz
Goldings dry hops 0.25 oz
OG 1047
FG 1012
ABV 4.63
Apparent attenuation 74.47%
IBU 32
SRM 5
Mash at 152º F
Sparge at 170º F
Boil time 120 minutes
pitching temp 59.5º F
Yeast Wyeast 1099 Whitbread Ale


This recipe - and many others - are in my latest book.

A history of British brewing during WW I, with lots and lots of numbers and ludicrous number of recipes is available for purchae, But a copy. Buy several and give the spare ones to your friends.

Support independent publishing: buy this book on Lulu.