Friday, 17 January 2020

How to tackle tax increases

I always wondered a couple of things about Australian beer when I lived there. Why was it stronger than beer in the UK and why did they use such weird glass sizes.

This aricle in the excellent Time Gents blog explains it.

It's all to do with price inelasticity and tax increases. And it forms an interesting contrast with what occurred in the UK.

In the 20th century, brewers struggled with small tax increases. Mostly beacuse of the limitations of the currency. The cheapest beer only cost 2d per pint and the smallest coin was a farthing (a quarter penny).  What did you do if a tax increase raised the price by 12.5% (as happened in 1901)? If you raised the price of Mild from 2d to 2.25d, what price would you sell a half pint for?

The brewers found a simple solution: they just dropped the OG enough so the beer could still retail for the same price. Which also caused less unrest amongst drinkers, as the price of their pint remained the same. Quite inportant pre-WW I, when the price of beer had been constant for 40 or 50 years. And, initially, drinkers probably wouldn't notice the difference in strength.

Australian brewing struggled with the same challenges when the tax on beer was increased. Drinkers didn't want to pay more for their beer, and there were limits on the currency.

But a different approach was taken. Mostly because it was the publicans, rather than the brewers, who were calling the shots. Rather than increase the price, they reduced the glass size. As only Imperial Pints and half pints were controlled measures, new glasses, such as the schooner, were introduced.

When introduced in 1932, a New South Wales schooner was 18 fluid ounces, just a little smaller than an Imperial pint. By 1945 it was down to just 13 fluid ounces.

So while UK drinkers got the same quantity of weaker beer, Australians got less beer, but at the same price.

Thursday, 16 January 2020

Drybrough's beers in 1948

No brewery was immune to changes in its beers during WW II. Government control of raw materials and the quantity of beer which could be brewed impacted all brewers heavily.

Though Drybrough appear to have suffered less than some, especially when it came to cuts in gravity. Why was that? Because their gravities were quite low to start with. The vast bulk of the beer Drybrough brewed at the start of the war was 60/- PA, and that was 4º below the average OG for the UK of 1041º. Only two of its beers, 80/- PA and Burns Ale were above average OG and both were brewed in minute quantities.

But that doesn’t mean that there weren’t considerable strength reductions across Drybrough’s whole range. 60/- in 1948 was weaker than 54/- had been before the war. That is, just about barely intoxicating.

It’s interesting to see that Drybrough still lacked a beer in the Ordinary Bitter class. 54/- and 60/- are more like English Milds in strength. And 80/- was like a Best Bitter. An Ordinary Bitter was missing until around 1960, when Keg Heavy was introduced at 1037º.

The hopping rate has fallen since 1936 from around 5 lbs per quarter (336 lbs) of malt to 4 lbs. Or about 20%, which exactly the reduction demanded by the government in June 1941.

I wouldn’t pay too much attention to the FGs quoted in the table. The last gravity listed in Drybrough’s brewing records is the cleansing gravity, not the racking gravity. The real FGs, I know from analyses of their beers as sold, were a good bit lower. As this table shows:

Drybrough beers 1946 - 1949
Year Beer Style OG FG ABV App. Atten-uation
1946 60/- Ale Pale Ale 1029.5 1007.5 2.85 74.58%
1946 60/- Ale Pale Ale 1030 1008.5 2.78 71.67%
1947 80/- Ale Pale Ale 1034 1008 3.37 76.47%
1948 Strong Ale Strong Ale 1060 1019.5 5.25 67.50%
1949 PA 60/- Pale Ale 1030 1004.5 3.32 85.00%
Thomas Usher Gravity Book document TU/6/11

1948 wasn't the nadir for Drybrough's beers in terms of strength. That was the year earlier, when 54/-, 60/- and XXP were 1026º, 1029º, 1036º, respectively.

Drybrough's beers in 1948
Beer Style OG FG ABV App. Atten-uation lbs hops/ qtr hops lb/brl Pitch temp
P 54/- Pale Ale 1027 1011 2.12 59.26% 3.96 0.45 60º
P 60/- Pale Ale 1030 1011 2.51 63.33% 4.33 0.56 59.5º
XXP Pale Ale 1041 1014 3.57 65.85% 3.96 0.68 60º
Burns Strong Ale 1070 1031 5.16 55.71% 4.33 1.30 59º
Drybrough brewing record held at the Scottish Brewing Archive, document number D/6/1/1/6.

Wednesday, 15 January 2020

Let's Brew Wednesday - 1909 Whitbread IPA

Time for another genuine English IPA recipe, I think. One that was really brewed in England and marketed as IPA. Rather than what American home brewers think English IPA shoule be like by reverse engineering it from US versions. I'm pretty sure this beer fails to meet any IPA guidelines.

Whitbread first brewed their IPA in 1900. Making this a fairly early iteration of the beer.

Just to confuse modern style Nazis, it was lower in gravity that the Pale Ale that they had been brewing since 1865. That beer had an OG of around 1060º. One thing that does fit in with modern ideas is the hopping rate, which was slightly higher for the IPA.

There’s not much to the recipe. Just pale malt, invert sugar and a load of Goldings. Not as crazy as in some 19th-century beers, but enough to give calculated IBUs in the 60s.

It’s possible at this date that the colour was adjusted with caramel at racking time.

1909 Whitbread IPA
pale malt 8.00 lb 80.00%
no. 1 sugar 2.00 lb 20.00%
Goldings 90 mins 1.75 oz
Goldings 60 mins 1.75 oz
Goldings 30 mins 1.75 oz
Goldings dry hops 0.50 oz
OG 1049.6
FG 1015
ABV 4.58
Apparent attenuation 69.76%
IBU 68
Mash at 151º F
Sparge at 165º F
Boil time 105 minutes
pitching temp 59º F
Yeast Wyeast 1099 Whitbread ale

The above is one of the many recipes in my book Let's Brew!

And I've recently created a Kindle version of the book.

Tuesday, 14 January 2020

Bavaria memories

Remembering one of my last trips to Bavaria.

See how many locations you can identify.

Drybrough's sugars and hops in 1936

Of course, malts and adjuncts weren’t the only ingredients in Maclay’s beers. There were also sugars. If you count malt extract, there were more types of sugar than malt.

The sugars come to about exactly 10% of the total. Which is fairly typical for the UK in general. 70-75% malt, 15-20% adjunct, 10% sugar was pretty standard. Though there was the odd brewery that dispensed with adjuncts. And others, such as William Younger, which used very little sugar.

I’ll be honest: I’ve know next to nothing about Avona. Other than that it was a proprietary sugar and intended to be added in the copper. Fison I at least know refers to the name of the producer. Though its exact nature remains a total mystery.

The sugar called invert is slightly more specific. Though it would be nice to know exactly which type of invert was used. Given that the beers were relatively pale, as brewed, it has to be either No. 1 or No. 2 invert.

In the recipes which follow, I’ve substituted No. 2 invert for all of the sugars. It’s probably about as close as you’re going to get to the original sugars.

From the 193os on, quite a lot of smaller breweries employed both diastatic malt extract (DME) and enzymatic malt in small quantities. Presumably out of fear of insufficient enzymes to fully convert the mash. I’ve never seen the practice at a large brewery. Presumably because they had brewing chemists who knew better.

The hops used were Oregon from the 1934 harvest and English from the 1934 and 1935 harvests. Because of their high alpha-acid content and not much appreciated aroma, American hops were often used when quite old. When the war started, some older US hops continue to appear in the brewing records for a while, but after a year or two it’s 100% English.

Drybrough's sugars in 1936
Date Year OG malt extract Fison Avona invert total
P 54/- Pale Ale 1031 0.91% 1.82% 3.65% 3.65% 10.03%
Bottling Pale Ale 1033 0.91% 1.82% 3.64% 3.64% 10.02%
P 60/- Pale Ale 1037 0.87% 1.74% 4.65% 3.49% 10.75%
P 80/- Pale Ale 1050 0.87% 1.74% 4.65% 3.49% 10.75%
Burns Strong Ale 1084 0.89% 7.10% 7.99%
Drybrough brewing record held at the Scottish Brewing Archive, document number D/6/1/1/4.

Monday, 13 January 2020

Drybrough's malts in 1936

Drybrough was also typically Scottish when it came to the ingredients they used. There was a very limited palette of malts.

There was little other than base malt. There was a small amount of enzymic malt and a minute amount to black malt for colour adjustment. Plus everyone’s favourite adjunct, flaked maize.

Though the malt situation was a little more complicated, as there were multiple types of pale malt. Typically for the pre-war period, the barley from which the malt was made came from all over the world. It would, however, have all been malted in the UK. While large quantities of barley were imported, no malt was.

This is the breakdown of the pale malts for the 60/- and 80/-. The other beers had the same types, but not in exactly the same proportions:

malt quarters %
Scotch 3 15%
Chilean 2 10%
Tunis 7 35%
Californian 8 40%
Total 20

Only 15% of the malt was made from UK-grown barley. All the rest had been imported. It’s not unusual for UK beers of the period to include large quantities of foreign barley, but this is quite an extreme example.

Drybrough's malts in 1936
Date Year OG pale malt black malt enzymic malt flaked maize
P 54/- Pale Ale 1031 75.51% 0.78% 1.64% 12.04%
Bottling Pale Ale 1033 69.20% 0.76% 1.82% 18.21%
P 60/- Pale Ale 1037 69.75% 0.31% 1.74% 17.44%
P 80/- Pale Ale 1050 69.75% 0.31% 1.74% 17.44%
Burns Strong Ale 1084 77.20% 1.51% 13.31%
Drybrough brewing record held at the Scottish Brewing Archive, document number D/6/1/1/4.

Sunday, 12 January 2020

Drybrough’s beers in 1936

On the eve of WW II, Drybrough had a pretty limited range of beers: four Pale Ales and a Strong Ale. Which was fairly typical of most Scottish breweries. After WW I, they mostly gave up on styles like Mild Ale and Stout.

Though the reality was slightly more complicated. Because I know from other sources that Drybrough did market beers in other styles. For example, I’ve a couple of analyses for a beer called Nourishing Stout. Based on its gravity, I’d guess it was really 54/- with some special primings added at racking time.

It’s worth remembering that average OG was 1041º in 1936.  The vast majority of beer Drybrough produced was well below that level. Because at least 80% of their output was in the form of 60/-. Which was around the strength of an Ordinary Mild in England. And 60/- seems to have filled the same slot as Mild did in England. Something which was also the case after WW II.

Notable is what’s missing: a beer of classic Ordinary Bitter strength, which in the 1930’s would have been around 1045º. A beer which South of the border would have been one of a brewery’s biggest sellers. While Pale Ales of gravities as low as 54/- weren’t very common in England, except in country districts where beer tended to be weaker.

The hopping rate for the Pale Ales, at a little under 5 lbs per quarter (336 lbs) of malt, is very low. In England 7 to 9 lbs was usual. But it’s typical of Scottish brewers. From the final decades of the 19th century onwards, Scottish hopping rates diverged from those of England, falling to significantly lower levels.

I wouldn’t pay too much attention to the FGs and rates of attenuation. The gravities given in Drybrough’s brewing logs is the racking gravity. I know from analyses of Drybrough’s beers as sold that the actual degree of attenuation was 75-80%.

Drybrough's beers in 1936
Date Year OG FG ABV App. Atten-uation lbs hops/ qtr hops lb/brl Pitch temp
P 54/- Pale Ale 1031 1011.5 2.58 62.90% 4.86 0.61 59º
Bottling Pale Ale 1033 1012 2.78 63.64% 4.86 0.64 61º
P 60/- Pale Ale 1037 1013.5 3.11 63.51% 4.93 0.74 60º
P 80/- Pale Ale 1050 1015 4.63 70.00% 4.93 1.00 59º
Burns Strong Ale 1084 1030 7.14 64.29% 6.30 2.48 59.5º
Drybrough brewing record held at the Scottish Brewing Archive, document number D/6/1/1/4.

Saturday, 11 January 2020

Let's Brew - 1940 Fullers No. 2 PA

Late in 1940, Fullers introduced a new Pale Ale, No. 2 PA. Slightly odd, as the three they already brewed seemed like too many.

In terms of strength, it was about exactly halfway between XK and PA, which I suppose was the idea. Though exactly why they needed a half Best Bitter, I’m not sure. Perhaps it replaced the old PA in some pubs.

Not that a huge amount of No. 2 PA was being brewed. In this four-way parti-gyle, just 27 barrels were No. 2. While there were 162.5 barrels of PA, 100 barrels of XK and 2 barrels of AK. It’s odd that the strongest example was the one most was being brewed of.

There hasn’t really been much fiddling with the recipe. Just the flaked maize has been replaced by flaked rice. Something which I’ve observed at multiple breweries in 1940. Meaning it was a change that was dictated rather that chosen.

The oddest feature is that, with all the other Pale Ales having been dropped, it was brewed single-gyle. Something Fullers had never done with their Pale Ales.

Not much to report about the hops. They were all English and all from the 1939 harvest.

1940 Fullers No. 2 PA
pale malt 8.75 lb 87.41%
flaked rice 1.00 lb 9.99%
No. 2 invert sugar 0.125 lb 1.25%
glucose 0.125 lb 1.25%
caramel 1000 SRM 0.01 lb 0.10%
Fuggles 90 min 1.50 oz
Goldings 30 min 1.50 oz
Goldings dry hops 0.50 oz
OG 1042.5
FG 1012
ABV 4.03
Apparent attenuation 71.76%
IBU 39
Mash at 148º F
After underlet 154º F
Sparge at 168º F
Boil time 90 minutes
pitching temp 61º F
Yeast WLP002 English Ale

Friday, 10 January 2020

The Home Brewer's Guide to Vintage Beer

Remember me asking if you'd be interested in a signed copy of my masterpiece, The Home Brewer's Guide to Vintage Beer?

Despite being out of print, this wonderful introduction to vintage British beer styles and how to brew them, is still available. If you just look to the left.

You can order a signed copy at the click of a button. Which will set my fulfillment organisation into action. And within a few days you'll have the best book ever written abouthistoric British brewing in your perspiring digits.

Just look to your left. Click, buy.

Then, perhaps, the kids will get a holiday this year.

Hops in WW II

Britain was in a far less vulnerable position in regard to hop supply in WW II than it had been in WW I, for the simple fact that the UK was far less dependent on imports.

In 1914, the UK was far from self-sufficient in hops. Large quantities of hops were imported, the biggest source by far being the USA. Hops were still travelling East across the Atlantic in 1939, but in nothing like the quantities they had been before WW I.

The main other sources of hop imports were central Europe, which provided classy one like Hallertau and Saaz, and Belgium which provided cheap and cheerful Poperinge.

Due to shortages, the government compelled brewers to reduce their hopping rates:

"Consumption of hops by brewers was cut in June, 1941, under instructions of the Ministry of Food, by 20% of the rate used per standard barrel."
1955 Brewers' Almanack, page 64.

Problems with hop supply began early in the war:

"The reduction in hop supplies has been serious. In June, 1941, a 20 per cent cut was imposed in the gross amount available to the trade. The actual quantity which passed through the Hops Marketing Board (which controls hops and their distribution) was 75 per cent of the total brewers' nominations. These nominations would have been the same in 1941 as the consumption during the datum year, if as many standard barrels had been brewed as in that year. But in 1942 the nominations, themselves, had to be cut by 20 per cent, and then only 80 per cent of the nominations were available, i.e., 64 per cent of the prewar quantities. In the present year hop rates in practice are about 1 to 1.2 lb per standard barrel, i.e., about 0.3 per cent, whereas in normal times this would have been almost double.

Hops are obtainable only under license, and a brewer who runs short may apply to the Brewers' Society for permission to secure a further allowance from his nominated merchants. Brewers usually carry a stock of hops over from one season to the next, new hops rarely being used. By now all reserves of this kind have been used up and brewers are living from hand to mouth; in many cases they have to use the new season's hops as soon as these are delivered. Matters were not helped during the London blitz back in late 1940, when some 50,000 pockets of hops were burnt. It was also on this occasion that the historic building, Brewers' Hall — the home of the Institute of Brewing — was completely destroyed."
"Wallenstein Laboratories Communications, December 1943, Volume VI, number 19" pages 156 - 157.
 This is an excerpt from, if all goes well, will be my 2020 book. Can you guess what the subject is?

Hop and hop product imports 1938 - 1949
Year ended 31st March Hops Hop Oil Hop Extracts. Essences, and similar Preparations Net Receipts from Duty
Cwt. Oz. Oz. £
1938 45,336 125 487 177,660
1939 44,056 101 170,930
1940 2,024 72 7,860
1941 11,055 32 42,009
1942 171 161 24,392 883
1943 3,254 684 7,712 13,669
1944 134 100 209,152 1,479
1945 30 967,061 4,413
1946 563 3,558,892 18,118
1947 26,928 1,424,748 113,937
1948 7,766 30,710
1949 §174 738
§ Excess of Drawbacks.
1955 Brewers' Almanack, page 64.

Thursday, 9 January 2020

US Northwest in May

I've got either end of the trip in Seattle sorted out. Now I just need the sandwich filling.

I'm looking at setting up a couple of events in Idaho and Montana. These are the days that I need to fill:

Sunday 17th May
Monday 18th May
Tuesday 19th May
Wednesday 20th May

I'm pretty easy about exactly where, though I do need to be able to get there easily from Seattle.

If you're a brewery or a home brew club and would like to hear one of the world's leading beer historians*, get in touch.

* There are only around a dozen of us.

Beers on sale in a post-war pub

I just came across this rather useful price list from just after the war.

Useful, in that is shows the range of beers on sale. At least the ones brewed by Flowers themselves. There's at least one beer from another brewer excluded: Guinness Extra Stout.

The selection isn't enormous. Just two draught and four bottled beers. The draughts are what you would expect: Bitter and Mild. Not many surprises in the bottles, either: a strong Pale Ale, Light Ale, Brown Ale and Stout. It's about the minimum you would expect from an English brewery.

Flower’s Ales and Stout directed to he sold by Flower and Sons, Ltd., at all their houses throughout the Midland Counties

India Pale Ale 1/4d. per pint 1/3d. per pint
XXX Mild Ale  1/3d. per pint 1/2d. per pint


Large Small Large Small
India Pale Ale "Gold Top" - 1/1.5d. - 1/1d.
Light Bitter Beer "Red Top" 1/4d. 8.5d. 1/3d. 8d.
Brown Ale "Brown Top"  1/4d. 8.5d. 1/3d. 8d.
Flower‘s Stout "Yellow Top"  1/5d. 9d. 1/4d. 8.5d.

The Famous Ale from Stratford - upon - Avon."
Leamington Spa Courier - Friday 15 October 1948, page 6.
 One of the reasons I was so keen on finding this particular price list is that I've a Flowers brewing record from just a few years later. The beer range is considerably more extensive.

Flowers beers in 1955
Beer Style OG FG ABV App. Atten-uation lbs hops/ qtr hops lb/brl
PX Pale Ale 1030.3 1011.5 2.49 62.05% 6.00 0.79
LA Pale Ale 1030 1007 3.04 76.67% 6.00 0.78
Green Label Pale Ale 1047 1015 4.23 68.09% 7.24 1.34
BX Brown Ale 1030.4 1009 2.83 70.39% 5.02 0.59
IPA IPA 1034.2 1009 3.33 73.68% 7.59 0.98
OB Pale Ale 1043.4 1011 4.29 74.65% 7.23 1.23
PX Pale Ale 1030.4 1011 2.57 63.82% 6.19 0.73
XXX Mild 1032.4 1010 2.96 69.14% 5.08 0.65
Shakespeare Ale Strong Ale 1075.4 1027 6.40 64.19% 8.86 2.66
Stout Stout 1039.8 1014.5 3.35 63.57% 7.17 1.14
Shakespeare Birthplace Trust DR227/215 Brewing Record Book No 2

Some are easy to match up with the price list. IPA and XXX are obviously the two draught beers. BX and LA look like the Brown Ale and Light Bitter.

The bottled Stout and IPA are trickier. At over 2 shillings a pint, bottled IPA was obviously a different beer from the draught version. Green Label or OB would be my guess. At just about 1040º, the Stout in the brewing record looks too strong to retail for just 1d more per pint than the Light Bitter and Brown Ale. My guess is that this version had a lower OG, somewhere around 1035º.

Wednesday, 8 January 2020

Just reminding you of my tacky merchandise

Mostly Barclay Perkins themed. Or DDR. One of the two. They are two of my favourite obsessions, after all.

make custom gifts at Zazzle

Let's Brew Wednesday - 1855 Truman EI Contract IPA

Truman dabbled with brewing Pale Ale even before they acquired a brewery in Burton.

Their Contract Pale Ale is particularly interesting, being a beer specifically brewed for the East India Company. The company regularly placed advertisements asking breweries to submit tenders for Pale Ale and Porter to be shipped to India.

To all those who insist that IPA is and always has been a strong beer, I’ll point out that this was the lowest OG beer Truman brewed. Their weakest Mild had a gravity of 1066º and even their Porter was 1057º.

At a time when breweries regularly used hops that were two, three or even five years old, it’s worth noting that this beer, which was brewed in November, used all 1855 season hops. So about as fresh as hops get. So for once I’ve not reduced the hopping rate to account for hop deterioration over time. The hops are described as MK, i.e. Mid Kent, in the brewing record.

Unsurprisingly, the grist is 100% pale malt. As were most beers other than Porter and Stout at the time. Not really much else I can say, is there?

1855 Truman EI Contract IPA
pale malt 12.75 lb 100.00%
Goldings 90 mins 3.25 oz
Goldings 60 mins 3.25 oz
Goldings 30 mins 3.25 oz
Goldings dry hops 0.50 oz
OG 1055
FG 1014
ABV 5.42
Apparent attenuation 74.55%
IBU 121
Mash at 154º F
Sparge at 170º F
Boil time 90 minutes
pitching temp 69º F
Yeast Wyeast 1099 Whitbread Ale

The above is one of the many recipes in my book Let's Brew!

And I've recently created a Kindle version of the book.

Tuesday, 7 January 2020

2d per pint extra for high gravity beer

One of the unique features of tax rises in the first half of the 20th century is that they usually amounted to an increase in 1d per pint, retail.

At least that's what was usually claimed. But, as the tax was related to the gravity of the beer, the situation was, in reality, more complicated. The 1d was based on average strength beer. Obviously the increase would be greater for a beer of greater strength.

As a result of the new Budget tax, higher gravity beers will be increased 2d. a pint, and not 1d. per pint as had been generally understood.

At a meeting of Derby and District Bottlers' Association yesterday the chairman said that it was very necessary to make it clear to the public that the new tax was on a gravity basis and that gravity beers are affected to a much greater degree than 1d. a pint.

The meeting fixed prices as under for Guinness Extra Stout, Bass Pale Ale, Worthington I.P.A., and Younger's No. 3 Scotch Ale delivered for home consumption as from Monday next: Bass, Worthington and Younger's, 12s. 6d. per doz. pints, 6s. 6d. per doz. half pints, 5s. per doz. nips. Guinness E.S., 11s. 4d., 6s. 2d., and 4s. 10d. respectively.

Gravity of beer depends on the amount of alcohol, hops, malt, and barley contained. A higher gravity beer is essentially a brewed beer with a higher percentage of these ingredients than the cheaper and chemically treated kind. In most cases brewers use "X's" to indicate the strength of their ales and stouts, and those that will go up by only 1d. pint are, generally speaking, those denoted by one X." "
Derby Daily Telegraph - Saturday 27 April 1940, page 3.
I understand the basic principle. But were the beers mentioned really so strong that the tax increase was 2d per pint? Why don't we take a look?

The increase in April 1940 was from 104 shillings per standard barrel to 135 shillings. A standard barrel being 36 Imperial gallons at 1055º. Luckily, I know the gravity of all four beers mentioned. They were all well above average strength, but nothing like double as strong.

Looking at the table below, you'll see that the increase in tax for an average strength beer was about 1d per pint. For the four higher-gravity beers, it's more like 1.25d.

Effect of April 1940 tax increase
Beer Tax in shillings OG tax per barrel (shillings) tax per pint (d.)
Average OG beer 104 1041 77.53 3.23
Average OG beer 135 1041 100.64 4.19
Bass Pale Ale 104 1056 105.89 4.41
Bass Pale Ale 135 1056 137.45 5.73
Guinness Extra Stout 104 1054 102.11 4.25
Guinness Extra Stout 135 1054 132.55 5.52
Worthington IPA 104 1055 104.00 4.33
Worthington IPA 135 1055 135.00 5.63
Younger's No. 3 104 1052 98.33 4.10
Younger's No. 3 135 1052 127.64 5.32
1955 Brewers' Almanack, pages 50 & 80.
Truman Gravity Book held at the London Metropolitan Archives, document number B/THB/C/252.
Whitbread Gravity book held at the London Metropolitan Archives, document number LMA/4453/D/02/001.
William Younger brewing record held at the Scottish Brewing Archive, document number WY/6/1/2/76.

Looks like the bottlers were taking the piss.

Given that the four beers were of very similar gravities, I wonder why Guinness Extra Stout was cheaper? What do the beers have in common? They were all nationally available.