As you'll see, the number of examples is pretty limited. That's because of the London brewers whose brewing records I have, only Truman brewed a Pale Ale in this period. It's still very early days for the style. That Younger did brew Pale Ale is an indication of how they were ahead of the game in spotting its potential. And that Scotland was out of phase with England, style-wise. While London brewers were transitioning from Porter to Mild Ale as their bread and butter, their Scots colleagues were moving straight to Bitter.
XXP looks very different from Younger's other beers. For a start, the degree of attenuation is much higher, averaging 75%. Most of their other beers, especially the Shilling Ales, struggled top reach 65% and were often below 60%.
Early Pale Ales from different breweries have very similar specifications. That's not so surprising. Initially, they were trying to imitate the beers of Burton and modelled their Pale Ales closely on them. As the century progressed versions brewed in different parts of Britain gradually diverged. Most outside Burton dropped gravities a little from the classic 1065º. In London after 1860 Pale Ales were usually about 1060º. Younger's were a little weaker than that, with IPA at 1054º and Export Pale Ale at 1060º.
Let's press on with the table.
|England vs Scotland early 1850's Pale Ale|
|Date||Year||Brewer||Beer||OG||FG||ABV||App. Atten-uation||lbs hops/ qtr||hops lb/brl||boil time (hours)||boil time (hours)||boil time (hours)||Pitch temp||max. fer-ment-ation temp||length of fer-ment-ation (days)|
|20th Mar||1851||Truman||Pale Ale||1067.0||22||6.88|
|7th Mar||1851||Truman||Pale Ale||1067.6||22||6.67|
|16th Dec||1851||Younger, Wm.||XXP||1065||1018||6.22||72.31%||24.00||8.10||1.25||1.33||57||68||7|
|10th Dec||1851||Younger, Wm.||XXP||1067||1017||6.61||74.63%||24.00||7.90||1.25||1.25||57||67||8|
|1st Mar||1852||Younger, Wm.||XXP||1067||1017||6.61||74.63%||24.00||8.20||1||1.17||56||67||8|
|14th Oct||1851||Younger, Wm.||XXP||1068||1019||6.48||72.06%||25.43||8.09||1.25||57||67||8|
|10th Nov||1851||Younger, Wm.||XXP||1068||1014||7.14||79.41%||24.00||8.20||1.25||1.25||57||69||8|
|1st Dec||1851||Younger, Wm.||XXP||1070||1017||7.01||75.71%||24.00||7.90||1.25||1.33||58||67||8|
|9th Oct||1851||Younger, Wm.||XXP||1072||1018||7.14||75.00%||24.00||8.18||1.25||58||67||7|
|William Younger brewing record document number WY/6/1/2/5 held at the Scottish Brewing Archive|
|Truman brewing record document number B/THB/C/132 held at the London Metropolitan Archives|
So much information is missing from the Truman's beers, that there are only two elements I can compare: OG and hopping rate.
Gravity is a piece of urine. The Truman's and Younger's gravities are very similar.
Hopping rates are much less confusing this time around. All the beers in the table are very heavily hopped, but Younger's slightly more so. By about 1.25 lbs per barrel, on average. This set is too small for a really meaningful comparison. But, once again, there's no evidence to support the claim that Scottish brewers used far fewer hops.
Porter next. I've a much bigger set for that. I wonder what it will tell us?