By the eve of WW I, English and Scottish had split wide apart. As the 20th century progressed, that gap became even wider.
|Thomas Usher vs London Porter and Stout 1909 - 1912|
|Year||Brewer||Beer||Style||OG||FG||ABV||App. Atten-uation||lbs hops/ qtr||hops lb/brl|
|1910||Barclay Perkins||BS Ex||Stout||1076.0||1022.5||7.08||70.39%||12.00||4.12|
|1910||Barclay Perkins||EIP Ex||Porter||1063.5||1020.0||5.75||68.50%||12.00||3.40|
|1909||Truman||Runner L & C||Porter||1054.3||6.1||1.38|
|Barclay Perkins brewing record held at the London Metropolitan Archives, document number ACC/2305/1/602|
|Whitbread brewing record held at the London Metropolitan Archives, document number LMA/4453/D/09/106|
|Truman brewing record held at the London Metropolitan Archives, document number B/THB/C/112|
|Thomas Usher brewing record held at the Scottish Brewing Archive, document number TU/6/1/5.|
Note that the degree of attenuation increases with the OG. Leaving the FGs of the three Stouts very similar. This is a trick I’ve seen before in Scottish beers. Maclay did something similar with their three Pale Ales. I guess the point is to have a similar level of body and sweetness in all three.
Interestingly, one area where there is no real difference is the level of hopping. Contrary to what some would tell you about Scottish beers. Usher’s Stouts have similar levels of hopping as London beers of a similar gravity. The only exceptions being the London Export Stouts which naturally would have been more heavily hopped.
The biggest change in the grist compared to their 19th-century Stouts is the absence of black malt, which has been replaced by chocolate malt. Before WW I, London brewers stuck with black malt, but Whitbread also swapped over to chocolate malt in 1922.
The original recipe contains six types of sugar: 4 cwt. CDA, 1 cwt. Maltosan, 2 cwt. oatine, 3 cwt. DL, 10 cwt Penang. I assume oatine contained oats in some form, so feel free to throw in some flaked oats if you fancy. CDA is some sort of proprietary dark sugar. No idea what Maltosan and DL are, but Penang will be some type of cane sugar. I’ve simplified it to just No. 3 invert.
The very long boil is probably because 48/- was parti-gyled with the stronger Stout. Or maybe they wanted to darken the wort. I won’t get angry if you stick to a more conventional, shorter boil.
|1912 Thomas Usher 48/- Stout|
|pale malt||6.75 lb||69.23%|
|brown malt||0.50 lb||5.13%|
|choc. Malt||0.50 lb||5.13%|
|crystal malt 60L||0.50 lb||5.13%|
|No. 3 invert||1.50 lb||15.38%|
|Fuggles 90 min||1.00 oz|
|Fuggles 60 min||1.00 oz|
|Fuggles 30 min||1.00 oz|
|Mash at||148º F|
|Sparge at||170º F|
|Boil time||240 minutes|
|pitching temp||60º F|
|Yeast||WLP028 Edinburgh Ale|