Friday, 17 May 2013

Drybrough PI 1914 - 1919 (part two)

I bet you thought I'd forgotten about this, the second part of my look at Drybrough PI in WW I. I hadn't. Just got distracted by holidays and the like.

And, yes, the quantity of data to fiddle with put me off, too. At this rate my series on Drybrough's beer will last until judgement day. Or maybe a little longer. We may have devolved back into worms by the time I'm done.

Some general remarks to start with. The recipes for all three beers are generally similar: 80% pale malt, 20% sugar (or sugar and flaked maize). Which is pretty typical for all Pale Ales of the period. It's a point I've made many time before, but I'll repeat it again: crystal malt in Pale Ales was almost unknown before WW I and not common until after WW II.

Note that pale malt (or the closely related PA malt) is the only malt used in any of the beers. Though it's also clear that Drybrough's and Fuller's beers have been darkened with some sort of sugar. I suspect that Whitbread were colour adjusting with caramel at racking time. That's what they did after the war to hit their colour standard.

Which begs the question, when did they stop trying to make Pale Ale as pale as possible and start deliberately darkening it? Looking over my tables, it seems Fuller's started adding caramel to AK in 1902. Barclay Perkins started adding caramel to their Ordinary Bitter, XLK, just before the outbreak of WW I. Interesting, that. I wonder what the reason was? Because it's before the big drop in gravity, which would have been an obvious cause.

Whitbread were the most conservative, or consistent, depending on how you look at. As the "other sugar" is almost certainly No. 1 invert, there's almost no change at all. Except that in 1917 and 1918 the percentage of sugar fell, because it was rationed:

"About this [October 1917] time sugar became rationed and brewers were only allowed to use 25 per cent, of the amount they used in 1915."
Journal of the Institute of Brewing Volume 46, Issue 4, August 1940, page 273.
The effect of sugar rationing is also apparent in the grists of Drybrough and Fuller's. In October 1917 the percentage of sugar in Drybrough's PI grist fell from 9% to 5%. At Fuller's the reduction was even more dramatic, from 10-15% to just over 2%.

As a result of the lowering of the amount of sugar used, the malt percentage in the grist went over 90% at all three breweries. Ironic, that a side-effect of the war should be to increase the malt content of beer. Though it is logical. Barley has limited use in feeding humans, whereas the opposite is true of sugar.

British brewers' love of sugar is demonstrated by the fact that when it became available again, the percentage used went back up to pre-war level, or even a little higher.

Drybrough's use of Poperinge hops throughout the war is a bit surprising. Especially as they weren't all from the pre-war crop. In 1918 they were using ones from the 1916 harvest. While Poperinge was in the corner of Belgium unoccupied by the Germans, it was just behind the front lines and subject to shelling and other disruption.

Fuller's used Poperinge hops, too, but only at the start of the war and after its end. The main attraction of this type of hops was their price. They were amongst the cheapest available. For most of the war, like Whitbread, Fuller's used English hops, mostly from Kent. There were plenty to go around. The reduction in demand for hops caused by falling gravities produced a glut of English hops. Only government intervention stopped most farmers going bust.


Drybrough PI 1914 - 1919
Date Year Beer OG FG ABV App. Atten-uation pale malt no. 1 sugar no. 2 sugar no. 3 sugar no. 4 sugar caramel glucose other sugar total sugar flaked maize flaked rice hops
29th Dec 1914 PI 1044.0 1015.0 3.84 65.91% 82.31% 2.89% 5.78% 0.36% 9.03% 4.33% 4.33% Californian and English
5th Jan 1915 PI 1044.0 1014.0 3.97 68.18% 82.40% 4.29% 5.15% 0.43% 9.87% 7.73% Californian and English
8th Jan 1915 PI 1044.0 1014.0 3.97 68.18% 73.93% 2.84% 5.69% 5.69% 0.47% 14.69% 11.37% Californian and English
14th Jul 1915 PI 1044.0 1013.0 4.10 70.45% 81.28% 4.28% 5.70% 0.18% 10.16% 8.56% Californian and English
14th Dec 1915 PI 1042.0 1013.0 3.84 69.05% 82.62% 2.62% 6.56% 0.33% 9.51% 7.87% Poperinge and English
7th Jan 1916 PI 1045.0 1014.0 4.10 68.89% 81.47% 3.67% 5.87% 0.18% 9.72% 8.81% Poperinge and English
18th Jul 1916 PI 1043.0 1013.0 3.97 69.77% 82.07% 3.70% 5.18% 0.18% 9.06% 8.87% Poperinge, New Zealand and English
4th Aug 1916 PI 1043.0 1013.0 3.97 69.77% 82.25% 9.14% 0.18% 9.31% 8.44% Poperinge, New Zealand and English
18th Oct 1916 PI 1042.0 1013.0 3.84 69.05% 81.47% 3.67% 5.87% 0.18% 9.72% 8.81% Poperinge, New Zealand and English
16th Jan 1917 PI 1041.0 1012.0 3.84 70.73% 80.61% 3.84% 6.14% 0.19% 10.17% 9.21% Poperinge, New Zealand and English
13th Feb 1917 PI 1036.0 1012.0 3.18 66.67% 80.50% 3.35% 5.87% 0.21% 9.43% 10.06% Poperinge, New Zealand and English
14th Aug 1917 PI 1035.0 1010.0 3.31 71.43% 85.09% 0.98% 7.82% 0.24% 9.05% 5.87% Poperinge, New Zealand and English
15th Aug 1917 PI 1034.0 1010.0 3.18 70.59% 85.51% 3.80% 1.90% 0.24% 2.85% 8.79% 5.70% Poperinge, New Zealand and English
16th Aug 1917 PI 1035.0 1010.0 3.31 71.43% 80.98% 4.50% 8.90% 0.22% 13.62% 5.40% Poperinge, New Zealand and English
17th Aug 1917 PI 1035.0 1010.0 3.31 71.43% 85.09% 1.96% 4.89% 0.24% 1.96% 9.05% 5.87% Poperinge, New Zealand and English
17th Aug 1917 PI 1029.0 1009.0 2.65 68.97% 85.09% 1.96% 4.89% 0.24% 1.96% 9.05% 5.87% Poperinge, New Zealand and English
20th Aug 1917 PI 1034.0 1010.0 3.18 70.59% 82.15% 0.98% 5.87% 0.24% 1.96% 9.05% 8.80% Poperinge, New Zealand and English
19th Oct 1917 PI 1033.0 1010.0 3.04 69.70% 90.85% 1.26% 3.79% 0.32% 5.36% 3.79% Poperinge and English
23rd Oct 1917 PI 1037.0 1011.0 3.44 70.27% 86.65% 0.88% 3.50% 0.22% 0.88% 5.47% 7.88% Poperinge and English
6th Nov 1917 PI 1038.0 1013.0 3.31 65.79% 88.68% 2.77% 1.85% 0.23% 0.92% 5.77% 5.54% Poperinge and English
21st Dec 1917 PI 1037.0 1011.0 3.44 70.27% 84.92% 4.92% 0.31% 2.46% 7.69% 7.38% Poperinge and English
22nd Jan 1918 PI 1037.0 1011.0 3.44 70.27% 84.03% 4.38% 1.75% 0.22% 1.75% 8.10% 7.88% English
27th Jan 1918 PI 1037.0 1011.0 3.44 70.27% 83.30% 5.21% 0.22% 3.47% 8.89% 7.81% English
19th Feb 1918 PI 1038.0 1010.0 3.70 73.68% 83.72% 6.77% 1.69% 0.21% 8.67% 7.61% English
26th Feb 1918 PI 1037.0 1010.0 3.57 72.97% 84.46% 7.04% 0.29% 1.17% 8.50% 7.04% English
5th Mar 1918 PI 1038.0 1010.0 3.70 73.68% 83.30% 6.94% 0.87% 0.22% 0.87% 8.89% 7.81% English
8th Mar 1918 PI 1038.0 1011.0 3.57 71.05% 85.23% 2.27% 2.27% 5.68% 1.14% 11.36% 3.41% English
23rd Jul 1918 PI 1030.0 1009.0 2.78 70.00% 91.18% 2.94% 3.92% 1.96% 8.82% Poperinge and English
13th Aug 1918 PI 1030.0 1009.0 2.78 70.00% 85.40% 2.92% 1.46% 7.30% 2.92% 14.60% Poperinge and English
23rd Oct 1918 PI 1030.0 1009.0 2.78 70.00% 91.18% 6.86% 1.96% 8.82% Poperinge and English
29th Oct 1918 PI 1030.0 1010.0 2.65 66.67% 85.40% 5.84% 7.30% 1.46% 14.60% Poperinge and English
24th Jan 1919 PI 1030.0 1009.0 2.78 70.00% 89.61% 10.39% 10.39% Poperinge and English
28th Jan 1919 PI 1030.0 1010.0 2.65 66.67% 87.88% 8.08% 4.04% 12.12% Poperinge and English
7th Feb 1919 PI 1030.0 1010.0 2.65 66.67% 85.71% 7.14% 7.14% 14.29% Poperinge and English
2nd Jul 1919 PI 1029.0 1010.0 2.51 65.52% 100.00% 0.00% English
3rd Jul 1919 PI 1031.0 1010.0 2.78 67.74% 91.43% 8.57% 8.57% English
8th Jul 1919 PI 1030.0 1009.0 2.78 70.00% 87.34% 5.06% 7.59% 12.66% English
Source:
Drybrough brewing record held at the Scottish Brewing Archive, document number D/6/1/1/3

Whitbread FA 1914 - 1919
Date Year Beer OG FG ABV App. Atten-uation pale malt PA malt no. 1 sugar other sugar hops
28th May 1914 FA 1047.4 1013.0 4.55 72.55% 22.28% 57.92% 19.80% EK
4th Jun 1914 FA 1047.1 1013.0 4.51 72.39% 22.28% 57.92% 19.80% EK
22nd Jun 1914 FA 1047.6 1014.0 4.45 70.62% 22.28% 57.92% 19.80% EK
8th Oct 1914 FA 1048.5 1015.0 4.43 69.06% 22.28% 57.92% 19.80% EK
29th Jan 1916 FA 1045.4 1013.0 4.29 71.38% 23.94% 55.85% 20.21% EK
18th May 1917 FA 1045.7 1010.0 4.72 78.12% 26.16% 57.56% 16.28% EK
24th Jul 1917 FA 1033.2 1005.0 3.74 84.96% 22.12% 61.95% 15.93% EK
11th Oct 1917 FA 1035.2 1005.0 3.99 85.79% 22.73% 68.18% 9.09% EK
5th Jun 1918 FA 1032.7 1008.0 3.27 75.52% 29.22% 68.18% 2.60% EK
3rd Jul 1918 FA 1032.6 1007.0 3.38 78.51% 27.86% 60.37% 11.76% EK
30th Oct 1918 FA 1032.4 1005.0 3.63 84.57% 21.33% 59.72% 18.96% EK
5th Feb 1919 FA 1032.1 1006.0 3.46 81.33% 21.63% 59.13% 19.23% EK
19th Mar 1919 FA 1032.4 1007.0 3.36 78.40% 21.95% 58.54% 19.51% EK
Source:
Whitbread brewing record held at the London Metropolitan Archives document number LMA/4453/D/01/079, LMA/4453/D/01/080, LMA/4453/D/01/081, LMA/4453/D/01/082 and LMA/4453/D/01/084.

Fuller's AK 1914 - 1919
Date Year Beer OG FG ABV App. Atten-uation pale malt no. 2 sugar glucose invert sugar caramel total sugar primings flaked maize hops
20th Nov 1914 AK 1044.3 1009.1 4.65 79.38% 78.89% 5.84% 5.84% 0.17% 15.26% 3.40% 5.84% MK, Poperinge, Cobbs and Oregon
8th Dec 1914 AK 1044.1 1009.4 4.58 78.63% 81.38% 5.56% 5.56% 12.36% 1.23% 6.26% MK, Poperinge, Cobbs and Oregon
2nd Jul 1915 AK 1044.5 1009.7 4.61 78.22% 78.96% 6.68% 6.68% 14.77% 1.40% 6.27% MK and Cobbs
1st Jun 1916 AK 1043.9 1009.7 4.53 77.93% 79.27% 6.61% 6.61% 15.77% 2.56% 4.95% MK and Cobbs
3rd Aug 1916 AK 1042.7 1008.9 4.47 79.23% 82.40% 4.85% 4.85% 12.75% 3.06% 4.85% MK and Cobbs
26th Oct 1916 AK 1041.0 1006.6 4.54 83.78% 80.05% 6.47% 8.09% 15.10% 0.55% 4.85% MK and Cobbs
3rd Nov 1916 AK 1041.7 1005.8 4.74 86.04% 80.16% 5.73% 5.73% 14.12% 2.67% 5.73% MK and Cobbs
12th Jan 1917 AK 1041.8 1007.8 4.50 81.44% 80.82% 5.26% 5.26% 13.27% 2.76% 5.91% MK and Cobbs
19th Jan 1917 AK 1040.7 1007.5 4.40 81.63% 82.98% 5.40% 5.40% 10.95% 0.16% 6.07% MK and Cobbs
13th Apr 1917 AK 1041.5 1008.3 4.39 79.99% 83.03% 5.40% 5.40% 10.90% 0.10% 6.08% MK and Cobbs
20th Jun 1917 AK 1038.6 1006.4 4.27 83.51% 86.64% 3.85% 5.78% 13.36% 3.74% MK and Cobbs
8th Aug 1917 AK 1035.4 1006.4 3.84 82.00% 97.77% 2.23% 2.23% MK and Cobbs
1st Nov 1917 AK 1035.9 1007.8 3.73 78.41% 92.36% 0.17% 2.42% 2.25% 5.23% MK and Cobbs
14th Nov 1917 AK 1036.1 1008.3 3.68 76.98% 92.38% 0.23% 2.31% 2.09% 5.31% MK and Cobbs
2nd Jan 1918 AK 1035.5 1007.5 3.70 78.92% 92.13% 5.94% 0.13% 7.87% 1.80% MK and Cobbs
16th Jan 1918 AK 1036.1 1011.1 3.32 69.35% 91.58% 3.05% 3.05% 0.16% 8.42% 2.15% MK and Cobbs
11th Apr 1918 AK 1026.1 1005.5 2.73 78.81% 74.94% 12.49% 12.49% 0.08% 25.06% 0.00% MK and Cobbs
20th Jun 1918 AK 1026.2 1005.5 2.73 78.84% 74.65% 19.14% 3.83% 0.09% 25.35% 2.29% MK and Cobbs
7th Nov 1918 AK 1025.7 1005.0 2.74 80.60% 77.55% 18.35% 0.18% 22.45% 3.92% MK and EK
16th Jan 1919 AK 1026.1 1006.1 2.64 76.62% 78.14% 8.14% 8.14% 0.17% 21.86% 5.41% MK and EK
15th Apr 1919 AK 1026.0 1004.4 2.86 82.98% 74.21% 6.06% 8.08% 0.26% 21.25% 6.85% 4.54% MK and WK
19th Jun 1919 AK 1028.2 1004.7 3.10 83.28% 77.72% 6.76% 6.76% 0.14% 15.52% 1.86% 6.76% MK and WK
25th Jun 1919 AK 1028.0 1005.3 3.01 81.21% 78.01% 8.00% 6.00% 0.27% 15.99% 1.72% 6.00% MK and Cobbs
27th Aug 1919 AK 1030.5 1006.9 3.12 77.31% 74.03% 8.80% 8.80% 0.16% 17.91% 0.16% 8.06% English and Poperinge
Source:
Fuller's brewing records held at the brewery.

1 comment:

Barm said...

I have always found Drybrough’s “faceless man” logo slightly creepy.