Tuesday, 18 January 2011

Whitbread Porter 1831 - 1840

Ah, another new decade of Whitbread Porter. This time the 1830's. You may have detected a certain logic to this. Starting at the beginning and moving forwards in time in a linear fashion until I reach the end. Seems a logical enough approach.

Brown malt. I have to mention that. Especially in regard to that classic made-up style, Robust Porter.You'll see that Whitbread only briefly flirted with a brown malt-free grist. In 1832 brown malt was not only back in the grist, but in a considerably greater quantity than it had been at any time since the introduction of black malt. Mostly it madee up 10% ofr more og the grist, while in the 1820's it had been just 3 or 4%.

The proportion of black malt continued to creep up. It rose from around 1.5% at the start of the decade to closer to 2.5% by its end. You'll see later that this trend continued right through the 19th century.

After 1839, there was a significant drop in the hopping rate, falling from 14 lbs per quarter to 11. This took it back to about the same level it had been in the early 1820's. Yet with 2.5 to 2.75 lbs of hops per barrel, you couldn't describe theses these beers as lightly-hopped. Time for me to bang on about Porter being something you would expect to be quite heavily-hopped, it being a Beer rather than an Ale. But I'm sure you've remembered that.

The gravity was, at 1060-1062, a couple of points higher than in the 1820's. Attenuation remained much the same, 67-70%. The pitching temperature, mostly 63.5-64º F was perhaps half a degree cooler on average than in the 1820's. No very significant change there. The first wort was boiled a tad longer.


Whitbread Porter 1831 - 1840
Date
Year
Beer
OG
FG
ABV
App. Atten-uation
lbs hops/ qtr
hops lb/brl
boil time (hours)
boil time (hours)
boil time (hours)
boil time (hours)
Pitch temp
pale malt
brown malt
black malt
total
24th Mar
1831
P
1057.1
1019.1
5.02
66.50%
14.87
3.53
1
1.5
3
4
64º
98.22%

1.78%
100.00%
15th Aug
1831
P
1058.4
1019.9
5.09
65.88%
18.06
4.57
1.25
2.5
4

64º
98.51%

1.49%
100.00%
17th Sep
1831
P
1058.7



13.13
3.33
1.25
2.5
4

64º
98.58%

1.42%
100.00%
30th Mar
1832
P
1058.4
1017.2
5.46
70.62%
12.99
3.29
1
1.5
3
4
64º
88.50%
10.15%
1.35%
100.00%
8th Nov
1832
P
1058.2
1019.4
5.13
66.67%
12.61
3.23
1.25
2
4

63.5º
87.76%
10.88%
1.36%
100.00%
19th Nov
1832
P
1058.2
1019.1
5.17
67.14%
12.72
3.31
1.25
2
4

64º
87.76%
10.88%
1.36%
100.00%
21st Mar
1833
P
1058.7
1016.1
5.64
72.64%
12.48
3.17
1
1.5
3
4
63.5º
86.05%
12.36%
1.59%
100.00%
17th Aug
1833
P
1058.4
1018.0
5.35
69.19%
12.55
3.73
1
2
4

64.5º
88.42%
10.05%
1.53%
100.00%
19th Oct
1833
P
1058.7
1016.1
5.64
72.64%
13.25
3.31
1
2
4

64º
87.59%
10.86%
1.55%
100.00%
11th Aug
1834
P
1059.6
1016.9
5.64
71.63%
12.48
3.52
1
2
3

64º
88.35%
9.67%
1.98%
100.00%
14th Aug
1834
P
1059.3
1018.3
5.42
69.16%
13.02
3.45
1
2
3

63.5º
87.76%
10.16%
2.08%
100.00%
16th Aug
1834
P
1060.9
1019.4
5.50
68.18%
13.08
3.52
1
2
3

64.25º
87.76%
10.16%
2.08%
100.00%
11th Dec
1834
P
1058.7
1017.5
5.46
70.28%
13.11
3.35
1
2
3

64º
85.79%
12.46%
1.75%
100.00%
31st Oct
1834
P
1059.3
1018.3
5.42
69.16%
12.89
3.25
1
2
3

64º
85.79%
12.46%
1.75%
100.00%
6th Aug
1835
P
1060.1
1017.2
5.68
71.43%
12.53
3.27
1
1.5
3
4
63.25º
83.04%
15.08%
1.88%
100.00%
19th Oct
1835
P
1061.2
1018.6
5.64
69.68%
13.47
3.49
1
1.5
3
4
63.5º
88.93%
9.23%
1.85%
100.00%
15th Jul
1836
P
1064.0
1019.9
5.83
68.83%
14.56
3.57
1.5
1.5
3
4
63.5º
77.43%
19.80%
2.77%
100.00%
3rd Aug
1836
P
1064.3
1017.7
6.16
72.41%
14.25
3.45
1.5
1.5
3
4
63º
77.43%
19.80%
2.77%
100.00%
30th Nov
1836
P
1061.2
1018.0
5.72
70.59%
14.74
3.64
1.5
1.5
3
4
63.5º
90.11%
7.61%
2.28%
100.00%
18th May
1837
P
1060.1
1018.8
5.46
68.66%
13.67
3.18
1.5
1.5
3
4
63.5º
89.94%
7.59%
2.47%
100.00%
8th Jul
1837
P
1060.4
1019.9
5.35
66.97%
12.81
2.89
1.5
1.5
3
4
63.5º
89.94%
7.59%
2.47%
100.00%
19th Jul
1837
P
1060.1
1018.6
5.50
69.12%
13.61
3.31
1.5
1.5
3
4
63.75º
89.94%
7.59%
2.47%
100.00%
30th Aug
1837
P
1059.8
1018.0
5.53
69.91%
13.79
3.34
1.5
1.5
3
4
64º
81.98%
15.67%
2.35%
100.00%
24th Jul
1837
P
1059.8
1019.4
5.35
67.59%
13.51
3.17
1.5
1.5
3
4
63.5º
89.94%
7.59%
2.47%
100.00%
6th Sep
1837
P
1059.6
1017.5
5.57
70.70%
13.76
3.29
1.5
1.5
3
4
63.5º
81.98%
15.67%
2.35%
100.00%
4th Sep
1837
P
1058.7
1017.7
5.42
69.81%
13.83
3.26
1.5
1.5
3
4
64º
81.98%
15.67%
2.35%
100.00%
30th Oct
1837
P
1059.0
1019.4
5.24
67.14%
13.85
3.19
1.5
1.5
3
4
63.5º
86.10%
11.58%
2.32%
100.00%
19th Oct
1837
P
1059.6
1018.0
5.50
69.77%
13.76
3.28
1.5
1.5
3
4
63.5º
86.10%
11.58%
2.32%
100.00%
4th Aug
1838
P
1059.8
1021.6
5.06
63.89%
13.01
2.97
1.5
1.5
3
4
64º
86.10%
11.58%
2.32%
100.00%
31st Jul
1838
P
1061.5
1018.8
5.64
69.37%
12.96
3.19
1.5
1.5
3
4
64º
86.10%
11.58%
2.32%
100.00%
11th Sep
1838
P
1061.8
1021.1
5.39
65.92%
14.07
3.47
1.5
1.5
3
4
62º
86.10%
11.58%
2.32%
100.00%
20th Oct
1838
P
1061.2
1019.1
5.57
68.78%
11.77
2.97
1.5
1.5
3
4
63.5º
86.10%
11.58%
2.32%
100.00%
27th Sep
1838
P
1061.5
1019.4
5.57
68.47%
14.28
3.37
1.5
1.5
3
4
63.25º
86.10%
11.58%
2.32%
100.00%
28th Jan
1839
P
1062.3
1018.8
5.75
69.78%
14.14
3.34
1.5
1.5
3
4
63.5º
86.10%
11.58%
2.32%
100.00%
24th Aug
1839
P
1061.8
1019.4
5.61
68.61%
10.50
2.53
1.5
1.5
3
4
64º
86.10%
11.58%
2.32%
100.00%
3rd Aug
1839
P
1062.3
1019.9
5.61
68.00%
10.64
2.60
1.5
1.5
3
4
66º
86.10%
11.58%
2.32%
100.00%
2nd Sep
1839
P
1061.5
1019.1
5.61
68.92%
10.32
2.56
1.5
1.5
3
4
63.5º
86.10%
11.58%
2.32%
100.00%
16th Nov
1839
P
1061.5
1020.8
5.39
66.22%
9.98
2.95
1.5
1.5
3
4
64º
86.10%
11.58%
2.32%
100.00%
9th Sep
1839
P
1062.0
1020.8
5.46
66.52%
10.46
2.51
1.5
1.5
3
4
63.5º
86.10%
11.58%
2.32%
100.00%
14th Sep
1839
P
1061.2
1019.7
5.50
67.87%
10.28
2.51
1.5
1.5
3
4
63.5º
86.10%
11.58%
2.32%
100.00%
25th Sep
1839
P
1061.8
1020.5
5.46
66.82%
10.27
2.56
1.5
1.5
3
4
63.5º
86.10%
11.58%
2.32%
100.00%
19th Oct
1839
P
1062.6
1021.3
5.46
65.93%
10.31
2.60
1.5
1.5
3
4
63.5º
86.10%
11.58%
2.32%
100.00%
27th Jul
1840
P
1061.8
1020.2
5.50
67.26%
10.94
2.71
1.5
1.5
3
4
63.5º
86.10%
11.58%
2.32%
100.00%
13th Jul
1840
P
1061.5
1020.2
5.46
67.12%
10.68
2.61
1.5
1.5
3
4
63.5º
86.10%
11.58%
2.32%
100.00%
28th Jul
1840
P
1062.9
1018.8
5.83
70.04%
11.13
2.88
1.5
1.5
3
4
64º
86.10%
11.58%
2.32%
100.00%
10th Aug
1840
P
1062.6
1020.2
5.61
67.70%
11.11
2.81
1.5
1.5
3
4
63.75º
86.10%
11.58%
2.32%
100.00%
18th Aug
1840
P
1061.8
1018.0
5.79
70.85%
10.83
2.70
1.5
1.5
3
4
63.75º
86.10%
11.58%
2.32%
100.00%
16th Sep
1840
P
1061.8
1020.5
5.46
66.82%
10.44
2.64
1.5
1.5
3
4
63.5º
86.10%
11.58%
2.32%
100.00%
19th Oct
1840
P
1062.0
1019.7
5.61
68.30%
10.92
2.82
1.5
1.5
3
4
63.5º
85.94%
11.56%
2.50%
100.00%
Source:
Whitbread brewing records held at the London Metropolitan Archives
Documents:
LMA/4453/D/09/024, LMA/4453/D/09/025, LMA/4453/D/09/026, LMA/4453/D/09/027, LMA/4453/D/09/028, LMA/4453/D/09/029, LMA/4453/D/09/030, LMA/4453/D/09/031, LMA/4453/D/09/032, LMA/4453/D/09/033, LMA/4453/D/09/034



The table shows the way Porter evolved through the 19th century. The occasional dramatic change followed by long periods of little or only very gradual change. The sudden reintroduction of brown malt to the grist in 1832 must have caused a perceptible difference in the finished beer.While the gradual edging up of the black malt content probably went unnoticed by drinkers.

8 comments:

The Hearty Goodfellow said...

The hop usage seems to evolve dramatically too.

Is this just trend or necessity?

Ron Pattinson said...

Hearty, I'd need to look up hop prices. I think I've got them somewhere.

Craig said...

Ron, a question I've been pondering, while not specifically about Porter, is: what would late 19th and early 20th century pubs have had to offer? Would they have had a full-line up of beer and ale, multiple taps of all levels of X and Ks, Porter and Stout? Were there Bitter only or Mild only or Porter only establishments? I guess the gist is, how was beer and ale offered to the public by the pub?

I may want to open my historically accurate, albeit American, pub one day!

Ron Pattinson said...

Craig, that's a really good question. And one to which I, surprisingly, have a a pretty good answer.

In London 1900 - 1910 it would have been:

X Ale
Porter
Pale Ale
Burton (KK)
Stout

Scummier pubs probably wouldn't have had the full set. X and porter would have been everywhere.

In other areas, the choice would have been different. But Mild, Pale Ale and stout you would have found much everywhere.

Craig said...

See, I knew I could count on you!

Martyn Cornell said...

To be historically accurate, though, Craig, your pub would have to be divided into two separate rooms, the "public bar", where the beer was a little bit cheaper, and the furnishings rather rougher, and most people are drinking mild, and the "saloon bar", where everything is a little smarter, including the customers, the beer costs that bit more, and people are drinking pale ale.

Martyn Cornell said...

Incidentally,Ron, were they using mostly old hops in those porters?

Ron Pattinson said...

Martyn, good question. Mostly it's a combination of the last season's hops, the season before that and sometimes also the season before that. So a beer brewed in, say, November 1836 might have hops from 1835, 1834 and 1833.